Ximan congxiao 溪蠻叢笑 is a book on native tribes in Wuling 武陵 (present-day Yuanling 沅陵, Hunan) written during the Southern Song period 南宋 (1127-1279) by Zhu Fu 朱輔 xxx, courtesy name Jigong 季公, from Tongxiang 桐鄉 (today in Zhejiang, or identical to Toncheng 桐城, Anhui).
The Ximan "savages" was one of five native tribes called Miao 苗, Yao 徭 (today written 瑤), Liao 僚, Tong 僮 (today written 侗), and Gelao 仡佬, namely the Xi from Xiong 雄溪, from Yuan 沅溪, from Qiu 酋溪, from Man 樠溪, and from Chen 辰溪. The term is derived from the "five river savages" (wu xi man 五溪蠻) mentioned in the official dynastic history Houhanshu 後漢書.
Ye Qian 葉錢, who wrote the preface to the short book, explained that the customs and habits of the five tribes were quite similar which allows to describe them as one coherent ethnic group. In 80 paragraphs, Zhu Fu provides information on the life of the Man tribes, with a special focus on the products of their environment, society, and economy, like wooden tallies (muxie 木契), wine made of Uncaria rhynchophylla (gouteng jiu 鉤藤酒), cinnabarite (chensha 辰砂), covers of reet (maohua bei 茅花被), the skirts of the Gelao 仡佬裙, gourd organs (hulu sheng 葫蘆笙), patterned shawls (bulan dai 不闌帶), girls' clothes (niangzu bu 娘子布), batik dyeing (dianla man 點蠟幔), bronze drums (tonggu 銅鼓), meat broth ( 不乃羹), embroidered balls (feituo 飛紽), bamboo tubes (tonghuan 筒環),performance of dances and songs (tage 踏歌), drinking through the nose (biyin 鼻飲), funeral halls (zangtang 葬堂), knotted hairs (zhuijie 椎結), etc. Much of this information is not found in other sources.
The book is included in the series Xu baichuan xuehai 續百川學海, Gujin shuohai 古今說海, Gezhi congshu 格致叢書, Yimen guangdu 夷門廣牘, both versions of the Shuofu 說郛, the Siku quanshu 四庫全書, Xuehai leibian 學海類編, Yangsuxuan conglu 養素軒叢錄, Gujin shuobu congshu 古今說部叢書, Shuoku 說庫 and Yingyin Yuan-Ming shanben congshu 景印元明善本叢書.