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Song huiyao jigao 宋會要輯稿

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Song huiyao jigao 宋會要輯稿 "Draft to an institutional history of the Song dynasty" is a reconstruction of the official institutional history (huiyao 會要) of the Song dynasty 宋 (960-1279), the Song huiyao, which has only survived in fragments in the Ming period 明 (1368-1644) encyclopaedia Yongle dadian 永樂大典. The fragments are, nevertheless, so abundant that the whole reconstruction is 366 juan "scrolls" long. The first version of an institutional history of the Song period was drafted by the three bureaus of the Chongwen Court 崇文院, the Institute for the Veneration of Literature, but this task was later officially taken over by the imperial secretariat (? mishusheng 秘書省). Through the Song period there were eleven institutional histories being compiled:
  • 慶曆國朝會要 Qingli guochao huiyao by 宋綬 Song Shou, from the Qingli reign (1041-1048)
  • 元豐增修五朝會要 Yuanfeng zengxiu wuchao huiyao by 李得鄒 Li Dezou, from the Yuanfeng reign (1078-1085)
  • 政和重修會要 Zhenghe chongxiu huiyao by 曾肇 Zeng Zhao, from the Zhenghe reign (1111-1117)
  • 乾道續四朝會要 Qiandao xu sichao huiyao by 汪大猷 Wang Dayou, from he Qiandao reign (1165-1173)
  • 乾道中興會要 Qiandao zhongxing huiyao by 陳騤 Chen Kui
  • 淳熙會要 Chunxi huiyao by 趙雄 Zhao Xiong, from the Chunxi reign ( 1174-1189)
  • 嘉泰孝宗會要 Jiatai Xiaozong huiyao by 邵文炳 Shao Wenbing, from the Jiatai reign (1201-1204)
  • 慶元光宗會要 Qingyuan Guangzong huiyao by 京鏜 Jing Tang, revision from the reign of emperor Guangzong (1189-1194)
  • 嘉泰寧宗會要 Jiatai Ningzong huiyao by 陳自強 Chen Ziqiang, regision from the reign of emperor Ningzong (1194-1224)
  • 經進總類會要 Jingjin zonglei huiyao and 經進續總類會要 Jingjin xu zonglei huiyao by 張從祖 Zhang Congzu
  • 十三朝會要 Shisan chao huiyao by 李心傳 Li Xinchuan
According to contemporary sources there must have been four other huiyao texts being submitted to the throne of which unfortunately nothing is preserved. The time covered by the extant texts ranges from 960, when the Song dynasty was founded, to 1224. The integral texts were already lost during the Yuan period 元 (1279-1368). The catalogue of the imperial library of the mid-Ming period 明 (1368-1644), the Wenyuange shumu 文淵閣書目 by Yang Shiqi 楊士奇, list a Song huiyao in 203 volumes, but remarks that it was lost. For this reason the later cataloge of the imperial secretariat, the Neige cangshu mulu 內閣藏書目錄 by Sun Nengchuan 孫能傳 and Zhang Xuan 張萱, does not list a Song huiyao at all. Interestingly enough other catalogues (Ye Sheng's 葉盛 Luzhutang shumu 菉竹堂書目 and Jiao Hong's 焦竑 Guoshi jingji zhi 國史經籍志) simply transmitted the information on the book as if it had really been owned by the imperial library.
In 1809, in the course of the official compilation of the Quantangwen 全唐文, the collected prose writings of the Tang period 唐 (618-907), one of the compilers, Xu Song 徐松, took the chance of having access to the Yongle dadian enclopedia. He extracted the countless fragments of the various Song huiyao books. Of the Yongle dadian itself already 2,000 chapters were missing so that there are also fragments of the Song huiyao lost. This tremendous task could not be finished by Xu Song. More than half a century later Zhang Zhidong 張之洞 established the Guangya Studio 廣雅書局 and assigned Miao Quansun 繆荃孫 and Tu Ji 屠寄 with the revision of Xu's draft. The result was the so-called Guangya draft 廣雅稿本 in 110 volumes. This draft was again revised and polished in 1915 by Liu Fuceng's 劉富曾 Jiaye Studio 嘉業堂. This is the Qing version 清本宋會要, which has abbreviated and omitted a lot of chapters. The Beiping Library 北平圖書館 in Beijing therefore assigned Ye Weiqing 葉渭清 and Chen Yuan 陳垣 with the revision of the Qing version. The result of the reconstruction task was the Song huiyao jigao, finished in 1936 and printed by the Shanghai dadong shuju press 上海大東書局.
The Song huiyao jigao has a very high value as a source for the history of the political, administrative and economic system of the Song dynasty. It is important as a supplement to the treatises in the Songshi 宋史, the official dynastic history of the dynasty. The Song huiyao jigao deals with 67 topics (lei 類). At the beginning of each topic a short introduction is given, after which imperial edicts and memorials by officials concerning the relevant theme are listed chronologically. The reader must always be aware that there are chapters missing and the some chapters have been added from later sources which were not included in the original institutional histories from the Song period.

1.-5. 帝系 Dixi The imperial house
6. 后妃 Houfei Empresses, consorts and their clans
7.-9. 樂 Yue Ritual music
10.-42. 禮 Li Rituals
43.-35. 輿服 Yufu Chariots and robes
46.-51. 儀制 Yizhi The system of courtly etiquette
52. 瑞異 Ruiyi Portents and omina
53. 運曆 Yunli Calendar
54.-57. 崇儒 Chongru The venerated scholars
58.-106. 職官 Zhiguan State offices
107.-120. 選舉 Xuanju State examinations
121.-163. 食貨 Shihuo Food and commodities
164.-170. 刑法 Xingfa Penal law
171.-186. 兵 Bing The military
187.-195. 方域 Fangyu Administrative geography
196.-199. 蕃夷 Fanyi Barbarians
200. 道釋 Dao-Shi Daoism and Buddhism

Source: Wang Yunhai 王雲海 (1992), "Song huiyao jigao 宋會要輯稿", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 2, pp. 1015f.

July 3, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
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