An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art

The Regional State of Jin 晉

Nov 1, 2018 © Ulrich Theobald
Don't confound this regional state of the Zhou period with the Jin dynasty 晉 (265-420).

Jin 晉 was one of the large regional states of the Zhou period 周 (11th cent.-221 BCE). It was located in modern Shanxi. During the Spring and Autumn period 春秋 (770-5th cent.), Duke Wen 晉文公 (r. 636-628) acheived supremacy over the other regional states and was elected hegemonial lord (ba 霸).

Three sidebranches of the house of Jin, Han 韓, Wei 魏,and Zhao 趙, became more powerful and finally divided the territory of Jin among themselves. The official appointment of the lords of these three countries as as marquesses (hou 侯) by the king of Zhou in 403 is seen as the beginning of the Warring States period 戰國 (5th cent.-221 BCE), or alternatively their destruction of the noble houses of Fan 范, Zhonghang 中行 and Zhi 知 in 454 BCE.

Map 1. The regional state of Jin 晉 (11th cent. - 376 BCE)
Map according to Tan Qixiang 谭其骧 (1987), Zhongguo lishi ditu ji 中国历史地图集. Jin was located in the southern parts of today's Shanxi province. It was one of the strongest state of the Spring and Autumn period, but was then divided among the lords of Han, Wei and Zhao. Click to enlarge.

The ruling dynasty of Jin was founded by Kang Shu Yu 唐叔虞, a son of King Wu 周武王, founder of the Zhou dynasty, and a brother of King Cheng 周成王 (r. 1116-1079 BCE). His state of Tang 唐 had originally been ruled by descendants of the mythological emperor Yao 堯, yet these rebelled under King Cheng and were executed. The young king thereupon bestowed the territory upon his younger brother Yu 虞 to whom he had promised a state when playing with him. This was the statelet of Yu 虞.

Yu's son Xie Fu 燮父 moved the seat of this state southwards to the banks of the River Jin 晉 (Fen River 汾河). Xie Fu was therefore the first to be called "Marquis of Jin" 晉侯. The exact reign dates of the marquesses of Jin are known from the rule of Marquis Jing 晉靖侯 (r. 859-841) on.

The Competition Between Jin and Quwo

Marquis Mu 晉穆侯 (r. 812-785) had two sons, the older of which was called Chou 仇 (literally: revenge), while the younger prince had the name Chengshi 成師 (literally: accomplished army). This was seen as a bad omen for the future of the dynasty. When Marquis Mu died, his younger brother "Uncle" Shangshu 殤叔 (r. 785-781) usurped the throne. Shangshu was expelled by the righteous heir, Prince Chou, four years later. Chou is known as Marquis Wen 晉文侯 (r. 781-746). When the Zhou court fled to the east in 700, Marquis Wen escorted King Ping 周平王 (r. 770-720 BCE) to Luoyang 洛陽 (modern Luoyang, Henan) and so ensured the foundation of the Eastern Zhou dynasty 東周 (770-221 BCE).

His successor, Marquis Zhao 晉昭侯 (r. 745-740), made his uncle Prince Chengshi governor of the territory of Quwo 曲沃 (modern Wenxi 聞喜, Shanxi) that possessed a town greater and richer than the capital seat of the marquis of Jin, which was called Yi 翼. The posthumous title of Prince Chengshi is "Uncle" Huan Shu 桓叔 (r. 745-732). Chengshi's chief advisor was Luan Bin 欒賓, a descendant of Marquis Jing. The Prince of Quwo was very popular, and it was well known at that time that one day his family might challenge the rulers of Jin. In 740 Pan Fu 潘父 assassinated Marquis Zhao and invited the Prince of Quwo to mount the throne, yet the retainers of the house of Jin defended the capital against the usurper and enthroned the son of the late marquis, Prince Ping 平, who is posthumously known as Marquis Xiao 晉孝侯 (r. 740-724).

Prince Chengshi was succeeded by his son Shan 鱓, who is known as Earl Zhuang of Quwo 曲沃莊伯 (r. 732-717). Earl Zhuang attempted a second time to usurp the throne of Jin and killed Marquis Xiao, but he had to return to Quwo without success. Marquis Xiao was succeeded by his son Prince Xi 郄, who is known as Marquis E 晉鄂侯 (r. 724-718). His early death instigated Earl Zhuang to a new attempt to occupy the throne of Jin. This time King Ping of Zhou 周平王 (r. 770-720 BCE) ordered the duke of Guo 虢 to defend the institutional order in the state of Jin, and again, Earl Zhuang was forced to withdraw to Quwo. Marquis E was succeeded by his son Prince Guang 光, who is known as Marquis Ai 晉哀侯 (r. 718-710). The Earl of Quwo also died and was succeeded by his son Cheng 稱, who is posthumously known as Duke Wu of Quwo 曲沃武公 (r. 717-677).

In 710, Earl Wu (the later Duke Wu) attacked Marquis Ai at Fenbang 汾旁 and arrested the ruler of Jin. His son Xiaozi 小子 (r. 710-706, this is not actually a personal name, but a term to express that he mounted the throne before his father was dead) was thereupon proclaimed marquis of Jin. Yet shortly later, Earl Wu ordered his uncle Han Wan 韓萬 to kill the captive marquis. Not long thereafter, the powerful earl even went a step further, "summoned" Marquis Xiaozi to Quwo and killed him. King Huan of Zhou 周桓王 (r. 720-697) thereupon ordered the duke of Guo once more to punish Earl Wu. The duke's campaign at least forced Earl Wu to enthrone the younger brother of Marquis Ai, Prince Min 湣, as ruler of Jin (r. 706-678). He was not granted a posthumous title because he was the last of this family branch and had no heir. In 678, Earl Wu killed him, looted his capital seat and presented the treasury of the marquesses of Jin to King Xi of Zhou 周釐王 (r. 681-677). The King thereupon granted to Earl Wu the title of duke (gong 公) of Jin. Earl (Duke) Wu of Quwo is therefore also known as Duke Wu of Jin 晉武公.

The Way to Hegemony

Duke Wu, the first ruler of the Quwo line in Jin, was succeeded by his son Guizhu 詭諸, who was posthumously called Duke Xian 晉獻公 (r. 677-651). In 672, Duke Xian attacked the "barbarian" Rong tribes of Li 驪戎 and captured two Rong princesses that became his favourites. A nobleman of Jin, Shi Wei 士蒍, warned him that the many princes of Jin might one day threaten his dynasty. Duke Xian thereupon executed all princes of the lateral branches and founded a new capital called Jiang 絳 (modern Jicheng 冀城, Shanxi). The surviving princes fled to Guo, a smaller state that had already several times challenged the power of Jin.

Shi Wei warned the duke that it was still not time to attack Guo. One of the Rong princesses gave birth to a son, Prince Xiqi 奚齊, whom Duke Xian wanted to make heir apparent. The other princes were thereupon sent to border towns to take residence there as defenders against the state of Qin 秦 in the west. Prince Shensheng 申生 was sent to Quwo, Prince Chong'er 重耳 to Pu 蒲, and Prince Yiwu 夷吾 to Qu 屈. Yet matters were more complex than the Duke had hoped. The mother of the former heir apparent, Prince Shensheng, Qi Jiang 齊姜, was a daughter of Duke Huan of Qi 齊桓公 (r. 685-643), and his sister was a secondary wife of Duke Mu of Qin 秦穆公 (r. 660-621). The mothers of the princes Chong'er and Yiwu were sister princesses from the Hu 狐 family of the wild Di tribes 翟.

In 661 Duke Xian conquered the states of Huo 霍, Wei 魏, and Geng 耿 that had belonged to side branches of the ruling dynasty of Jin. He confirmed Prince Shengcheng as lord of Quwo and granted the territory of Geng to Zhao Su 趙夙 and the territory of Wei to Bi Wan 畢萬. Both Shi Wei and Bu Yan 卜偃 warned the duke to bestow such honours upon them because these positions might enable them to challenge the rule of the lords of Jin one day. Duke Xian also entrusted his heir apparent with the supreme command of the campaign against the Red Di tribes 赤狄 of Dongshan 東山, which was not appropriate according to traditional customs, as Li Ke 里克 explained to the duke. Shortly later, the duke for the first time attacked the state of Guo. In 655, the army of Jin conquered Guo, and then the small state of Yu 虞.

When Duke Xian planned to nominate Prince Xiqi heir apparent, his mother secretly intrigued against the actual heir apparent, Prince Shensheng, and machinated that he offered poisoned meat to his father, the Duke. The Duke knew of these machinations and offered his son to flee to another country, but Prince Shensheng refused and committed suicide. Prince Chong'er and Prince Wuyi thereupon fled to their territories and fortified them. Prince Chong'er was not able to defend his town because his retainers were not loyal, and fled to the Di tribes, where his mother came from. Shortly after, Qu fell and Prince Wuyi also escaped to the Di tribes, yet he was urged to flee to Liang 梁, a town in the vicinity of the state of Qin that Duke Xian of Jin would surely not dare to attack. When Jin attacked the Di tribes, they successfully defended themselves in the battle of Niesang 齧桑.

Prince Xiqi was now the heir apparent. He had a younger brother called Daozi 悼子. Both were still young, and so Duke Xian entrusted them to his counsellor Xun Xi 荀息. When the Duke died, Li Ke and Pei Zheng 邳鄭 suggested inviting Prince Chong'er to mount the throne, but Xun Xi refused because he had made a promise to the late duke to enthrone Prince Xiqi. Li Ke thereupon killed Prince Xiqi. Xun Xi enthroned Prince Daozi in order to correctly perform the burial of Duke Xian. When the funeral was over, Li Ke also killed Daozi and sent for Prince Chong'er, but Chong'er refused because the burial of his father had not been performed in a regular way.

His brother Prince Wuyi was willing to become the next duke, but he was advised by Lü Sheng 呂省 and Xi Rui 郤芮 to seek the protection of Duke Mu of Qin and to offer him the territory of Hexi 河西. At the same time, the hegemonial lord Duke Huan of Qi arrived in Jin to restore order. Prince Wuyi is known as Duke Hui of Jin 晉惠公 (r. 651-637). Once on the throne, Duke Hui refused to cede the territory of Hexi, refused to appoint Li Ke governor of Fenyang 汾陽, as promised, and finally ordered him to commit suicide, fearing that Li Ke might support his older brother Prince Chong'er who still was in exile. Pei Zheng, who had ben sent to Qin, conspired with Duke Mu of Qin and explained to him that the nobles Lü Sheng, Xi Cheng 郤稱 and Xi Rui would support Prince Chong'er.

When Jin was affected by a draught, the duke of Qin willingly sent grain, yet a year later, when Qin needed grain, Duke Hui of Jin refused to send relief. Qin therefore attacked Jin and defeated it at Hanyuan 韓原. Duke Hui was captured but soon released because his sister was a wife of Duke Mu of Qin. Back in Jin, Duke Hui suspected his ministers of conspiring with Prince Chong'er, and ordered to kill him, yet his brother heard of the plot, left the Di tribes an escaped to Qi in the far east. The son of Duke Hui, Prince Yu 圉, was sent to Qin as a hostage. When his father fell ill, the Prince left Qin and returned to Jin, where he was enthroned as Duke Huai 晉懷公 (r. 637).

The Duke of Qin was very discontented with this succession and supported an internal rebellion by the lords of Luan 欒 and Xi 郤 who killed Duke Huai and invited Prince Chong'er to return to Jin. He was enthroned and is known as Duke Wen of Jin 晉文公 (r. 637-628). Prince Chong'er had lived for almost twenty years in exile, first among the Di tribes, where his mother came from, and then in Qin. He was married to a princess of the Red Di tribes of Jiuru 咎如 and had two sons, Prince Boshu 伯鯈 and prince Shuliu 叔劉. Chong'er had many competent retainers, the "five worthies", wuxian 五賢, namely Zhao Shuai 趙衰 (Zhao Chengzi 趙成子), Hu Yan 狐偃, Jia Tuo 賈佗, Xian Zhen 先軫 and Wei Chou 魏犨 (Viscount Wu of Wei 魏武子).

Prince Chong'er haid paid visit to virtually all of the larger regional states of the time and therefore knew their problems and strengths. At the beginning of his reign, Duke Wen was in need of a protective force of 3,000 guards from Qin, before the could master the situation and stabilize his throne. He rewarded all those that had supported him in the past. When King Xiang of Zhou 周襄王 (r. 652-619) was forced into exile by his usurpatorious brother Prince Dai 帶, Duke Wen of Jin was able to bring the king back to the royal capital Luoyang.

When several regional states besieged the state of Song 宋, this small state asked Jin for support. Duke Wen assembled three divisions that attacked the states of Wei 衛 and Cao 曹, so that the king of Chu 楚, their mighty protector, withdrew his forces from the siege of Song. Duke Wen was also able to establish alliances (meng 盟) with Qi and Zheng 鄭 and in 632 defeated in the battle of Chengpu 城濮 the army of Chu which were commanded by general Ziyu 子玉. The king of Zhou also bestowed the title of hegemonial lord (bo 伯, i.e. ba) upon Duke Wen, and all regional rulers (zhuhou 諸侯) swore allegiance to him. He assembled the regional rulers at Wen 溫, and later at Jiantu 踐土, to pay homage to King Xiang of Zhou. In 630, Jin and Qin attacked Zheng for its support of the state of Chu.

When Duke Wen died he was succeeded by his son Prince Guan 讙, known as Duke Xiang 晉襄公 (r. 628-621). Under his rule the relation to Qin worsened, and Jin defeated Qin in the battle of Yao 殽. Three generals of Qin were captured. Three years later, Qin attacked Jin to take revenge, and in 623 Jin attacked Qin again. When Duke Xiang died, a succession crisis erupted because the heir apparent Prince Yigao 夷皋 was still a child. It was deliberated whether Duke Xiang's brother Prince Yong 雍 or Prince Le 樂, another brother, should be enthroned, yet in the end Prince Yigao remained the legitmate ruler, known as Duke Ling 晉靈公 (r. 621-607). He was defended by general Zhao Dun 趙盾 (Zhao Xuanzi 趙宣子) who resisted the army of Qin that had been called to support the enthronement of Prince Yong.

Zhao Dun defeated Qin at Linghu 令狐. He was also sent to the royal capital where after the death of King Qing 周頃王 (r. 619-611) the royal princes contended for power. He enforced the enthronement of King Kuang 周匡王 (r. 613-607). When Duke Ling was grown up he proved to be a choleric ruler who killed his counsellor, and, when they remonstrated against the murder, ordered to kill Zhao Dun and Sui Hui 隨會. Zhao Dun planned to flee but his brother Zhao Chuan 趙穿 killed Duke Ling. The brothers managed the enthronement of Prince Heitun 黑臀, a younger brother of Duke Xiang. He is known as Duke Cheng 晉成公 (r. 607-600).

The Takeover by the Six Ministers-Commander (Han, Wei, Zhao, Zhi, Fan, Zhonghang)

In 600, Jin sent out Viscount Huan of Zhonghang 中行桓子 (Xun Linfu 荀林父) in order to punish the state of Chen 陳 that had, in fear for the mighty state of Chu in the south, refused to meet with the regional rulers at Hu 扈. Duke Cheng was succeeded by his son Prince Ju 據 (or Nou 獳), who is known as Duke Jing 晉景公 (r. 600-581). In 597, Chu attacked the state of Zheng. The army of Jin, under the command of Xu Linfu, challenged Chu and was heavily defeated. Xu Linfu offered to the duke his life as a punishment for his failure, yet Sui Hui argued that the execution of a general would only profit the king of Chu, and not the state of Jin. Duke Jing also considered attacking the state of Qi because his diplomat Xi Ke 郤克 had been insulted by the Duchess Dowager of Qi.

A nobleman of Chu, Wu Chen 巫臣, fled to Jin, and was appointed grand master (dafu 大夫) of Xing 邢. In 588, Duke Jing founded the six military divisions that were commanded by six ministers-commander (qing 卿, the liu qing 六卿), who were Han Jue 韓厥 (Han Xianzi 韓獻子), Gong Shuo 鞏朔, Zhao Chuan 趙穿, Xun Jia (Zhui) 荀騅, Zhao Kuo 趙括 and Zhao Dan 趙旃. Five years later, Zhao Tong 趙同 and Zhao Kuo were executed. Han Jue lamented that the duke had forgotten the service that Zhao Shuai and Zhao Zhi had delivered to the dynasty and urged Duke Jing to appoint Viscount Wu of Zhao 趙子武 as head of the house of Zhao.

Two years later, Duke Jing died. He was succeeded by his son Prince Shouman 壽曼, who is known as Duke Li 晉厲公 (r. 581-573). During his rule the regional rulers unfied in an alliance and attacked and defeated Qin. The "Three lords of Xi" (San Xi 三郤: Xi Qi 郤錡, Xi Chou 郤犨 and Xi Zhi 郤至) killed Bo Zong 伯宗, a loyal and straightforwardly speaking minister of the duke. Duke Li personally commanded the expedition against the state of Zheng that sided with Chu. The army of Chu was defeated at Yanling 鄢陵, and King Gong of Chu 楚共王 (r. 591-560) suffered a wound. Duke Li at that moment seemed to have revived the former hegemony of Jin over the other regional states.

Duke Li wanted to get rid of the house of Xi and sent out Luan Shu 欒書 and Xun Yan 荀偃 to have the lords of Xi executed, but Luan Shu intrigued against the Duke and his minion Xu Tong 胥童, arrested the Duke and killed Xu Tong. The Duke died a few days later. Prince Zhou 周 (or Jiu 糾), a son of Duke Xiang, was enthroned. He is known as Duke Dao 晉悼公 (r. 573-558).

Duke Dao assembled the regional rulers at Jize 雞澤. He made use of a handful of competent advisors that supported him to retain the ancient power of the state of Jin. Among these supporters was Wei Jiang 魏絳. The chronicles also say that Shi Kuang 師曠 suggested to him to exert a rule of benevolence and righteousness. It is not known if this is the same person to whom authorship of a book on birds (the Qinjing 禽經) is attributed. The six ministers-commander led the joint armies of the regional rulers to attack the state of Qin and defeated it.

Duke Dao was succeeded by his son Prince Biao 彪, who is known as Duke Ping 晉平公 (r. 558-532). Duke Ping attacked Qi, defeated its troops and was even able to besiege the capital of Qi, Linzi 臨菑. Qi took revenge a few years later, and Luan Cheng 欒逞, instigated by Qi, attacked Quwo. Viscount Xian of Fan 范獻子 pursued the Duke not to commit suicide, as he planned. The Viscount was right, because Luan Cheng was defeated soon, and the Duke could extinguish the noble house of Luan.

A few years later, Duke Zhuang of Qi 齊莊公 (r. 554-548) was killed. Duke Ping used this chance to crush the troops of Qi at Gaotang 高唐. The state of Qi was so threatened that even nine years later Yan Ying 晏嬰 was sent out to confirm the state of peace with Jin. He was convinced that the house of Jin would remain a hegemonial power for longer, yet another visitor to Jin, Yanling Jizi 延陵季子 of the state of Wu 吳 already perceived that the power in Jin would once be transferred to the lords of Zhao, Wei and Han.

Duke Ping was succeeded by his son Prince Yi 夷, who is known as Duke Zhao 晉昭公 (r. 532-526), the latter by Prince Qubing 去病, known as Duke Qing 晉頃公 (r. 526-512). The six ministers-commander had meanwhile become so strong that they took over the duties of a hegemonial lord and pacified the disturbances in the royal house of Zhou after the death of King Jing 周景王 (r. 545-521) by bringing King Jing 周敬王 (r. 520-476) to the throne. Viscount Xian of Fan was also asked to regulate political matters in the state of Lu 魯, where Viscount Ping of Ji 季平子 was ruling for Duke Zhao 魯昭公 (r. 542-510). The six ministers-commander also eliminated the house of Qi Xi 祁傒 whose members had served several dukes as chief counsellors.

Duke Qing was succeeded by his son Prince Wu 午, who is known as Duke Ding 晉定公 (r. 512-475). During the long reign of Duke Ding, the houses of the six ministers-commander continued contending for power. Zhao Yang 趙鞅, also called Viscount Jian of Zhao 趙簡子, fought with Xun Yin 荀寅 (a grandson of Xu Yan 荀偃) and Fan Jiyi (sic) 范吉射 (Fan Zhaozi 范昭子), who had the Duke on their side, but Zhao Yang was supported by Xun Li 荀櫟 (Zhi Wenzi 智文子), Han Buxin 韓不信 (Han Jianzi 韓簡子) and Wei Chi 魏侈 (Wei Xiangzi 魏襄子). The Duke was finally convinced by the latter that the lords of Zhonghang and Fan planned a rebellion, so that the Duke ordered to fight them. The two lords escaped to the state of Qi, and their territory was divided among the victorious viscounts of Zhao, Wei, Han and Zhi 智 (or 知). Duke Ding was still so powerful that he dared to contend for hegemony with King Fucha 夫差 of Wu at the meeting of Huangchi 黃池, yet King Fucha prevailed.

The Three Ministers Commander (Han, Wei, Zhao) Destroy the House of Jin

Duke Ding was succeeded by his son Prince Zao 鑿, who is known as Duke Chu 晉出公 (r. 475-457). Under his reign the lords of Zhi 知, Han 韓, Wei 魏 and Zhao 趙 attacked the lords of Fan 范 and Zhonghang 中行. In order to put down the internal rebellion Duke Chu appealed to the duke of Qi for help, yet the four lords on their side advanced their troops against Duke Chu. The duke escaped and died on his way to Qi. Zhi Bo 知伯 (Xun Yao 荀瑤) enthroned Prince Jiao 驕, a great-grandson of Duke Zhao. He is known as Duke Ai 晉哀公 (r. 457-438). His counsellor-in-chief was the Lord of Zhi. As the most powerful person in the dukedom, he was assassinated by the viscounts Xiang of Zhao 趙襄子, Kang of Han 韓康子, and Huan of Wei 魏桓子, and these three families remained the from then on the most powerful families in Jin. This happened in 453, a date that can be seen as the beginning of the Warring States period 戰國 (5th cent.-221 BCE).

Duke Ai was succeeded by his son Prince Liu 柳, who is known as Duke You 晉幽公 (r. 438-420). Duke You summoned the nobles of Jin to his court, but only the lords of Jiang 絳 and Quwo 曲沃 paid hommage to him, while the others swore loyalty to the Wei, Han or Zhao. Duke You is said to have been killed by bandits when he was seeking amorous adventures outside the capital. Marquis Wen of Wei 魏文侯 put down the disturbances and enthroned the duke's son (or brother) Prince Zhi 止, who is known as Duke Lie 晉烈公 (r. 420-393). In 403, the King Weilie of Zhou 周威烈王 (r. 426-402) bestowed upon the lords of Wei, Han and Zhao the title of marquis (hou 侯). Duke Lie was succeeded by his son Prince Qi 頎 (or Qing 傾), who is known as Duke Xiao 晉孝公 (r. 393-378). Duke Xiao's son Prince Jujiu 俱酒 is known as Duke Jing 晉靜公 (r. 378-376). In 376, the marquesses Wu of Wei 魏武侯 (r. 387-371), Ai of Han 韓哀侯 (r. 377-371), and Jing of Zhao 趙敬侯 (r. 387-375) extinguished the last princes of the house of Jin and divided the territory of Jin into three parts. They are therefore also known as the "Three lords of Jin" (San Jin 三晉). The Duke himself was demoted to the status of commoner.

The name of the state of Jin served as the name of numerous princedoms and was used by the Jin Dynasty 晉 (265-420) and the Later Jin 後晉 (936-946) of the Five Dynasties 五代 (907-960).

Table 1. Rulers of the regional state of Jin 晉
Capitals: Tang 唐 (near modern Yicheng 翼城, Shanxi), E 鄂 (modern Xiangning 鄉寧, Shanxi), Quwo 曲沃 (near modern Wenxi 聞喜, Shanxi), Jiang 絳 (Yi 翼; near modern Yicheng), Xintian 新田 (modern Houma 侯馬, Shanxi), Tunliu 屯留 (modern Tunliu, Shanxi), Duanshi 端氏 (NE of modern 沁水 Qinshui, Shanxi)
dynastic title personal name time
Elder Tang of Jin (Jin Tangshu 晉唐叔), Tang Shu Yu 唐叔虞 Ji Yu 姬虞, brother of King Zhou Chengwang 周成王
Xie, Marquis of Jin 晉侯燮 Ji Xie 姬燮
Marquis Wu of Jin
(Jin Wuhou 晉武侯)
Ji Ningzu 姬寧族
Marquis Cheng of Jin
(Jin Chenghou 晉成侯)
Ji Furen 姬服人
Marquis Li of Jin
(Jin Lihou 晉厲侯)
Ji Fu 姬福
Marquis Jing of Jin
(Jin Jinghou 晉靖侯)
Ji Yijiu 姬宜臼 859-841
Marquis Xi of Jin
(Jin Xihou 晉釐侯, 晉僖侯)
Ji Situ 姬司徒 841-823
Marquis Xian of Jin
(Jin Xianhou 晉獻侯)
Ji Ji 姬籍 823-812
Marquis Mu of Jin
(Jin Muhou 晉穆侯)
Ji Fusheng 姬弗生 or Feiwang 費王 or Fuwang 沸王 812-785
Elder Shang, Ruler of Jin (Jin Shangshu 晉殤叔) Ji Shangshu 姬殤叔 (usurper) 785-781
Marquis Wen of Jin
(Jin Wenhou 晉文侯)
Ji Chou 姬仇, son of Jin Muhou 781-746
Marquis Zhao of Jin
(Jin Zhaohou 晉昭侯)
Elder Huan of Quwo
(Quwo Huanshu 曲沃桓叔)
Ji Bo 姬伯, murdered by minister Pan Fu 潘父
Ji Chengshi 姬成師, brother of Jin Wenhou, usurper in 740
Marquis Xiao of Jin
(Jin Xiaohou 晉孝侯)
Earl Zhuang of Quwo (Quwo Zhuangbo 曲沃莊伯)
Ji Ping 姬平, son of Jin Zhaohou, murdered by Quwo Zhuangbo
Ji Shan 姬鱓, son of Quwo Huanshu
Marquis E of Jin
(Jin Ehou 晉鄂侯)
Ji Xi 姬郄, son of Jin Xiaohou 724-718
Marquis Ai of Jin
(Jin Aihou 晉哀侯)
Duke Wu of Quwo/Jin
(Quwo/Jin Wugong 曲沃/晉武公), becomes ruler of Jin in 679
Ji Guang 姬光, son of Jin Ehou, kidnapped and murdered by Quwo Wugong
Ji Cheng 姬稱, son of Quwo Zhuangbo
Marquis Xiaozi of Jin 晉小子侯 Ji Xiaozi 姬小子, son of Jin Aihou, murdered by Quwo Wugong 710-706
Duke Yi of Jin
(Jin Yihou 晉翼侯)
or Min, Marquis of Jin 晉侯緡
Ji Min 姬湣, younger brother of Jin Aihou, installed and later dethroned by Quwo Wugong 706-678
Duke Xian of Jin
(Jin Xiangong 晉獻公)
Ji Guizhu 姬佹諸 or 詭諸, son of Jin Wugong 678-651
Duke Hui of Jin
(Jin Huigong 晉惠公)
Ji Yiwu 姬夷吾 651-637
Duke Huai of Jin
(Jin Huaigong 晉懷公)
Ji Yu 姬圉 637
Duke Wen of Jin
(Jin Wengong 晉文公)
Ji Chonger (Chong'er) 姬重耳, younger brother of Jin Huigong 637-628
Duke Xiang of Jin
(Jin Xianggong 晉襄公)
Ji Guan 姬讙 628-621
Duke Ling of Jin
(Jin Linggong 晉靈公)
Ji Yigao 姬夷臯 621-607
Duke Cheng of Jin
(Jin Chenggong 晉成公)
Ji Heitun 姬黑臀 607-600
Duke Jing of Jin
(Jin Jinggong 晉景公)
Ji Nou 姬獳 600-581
Duke Li of Jin
(Jin Ligong 晉厲公)
Ji Shouman 姬壽曼 581-573
Duke Dao of Jin
(Jin Daogong 晉悼公)
Ji Zhou 姬周 573-558
Duke Ping of Jin
(Jin Pinggong 晉平公)
Ji Biao 姬彪 558-532
Duke Zhao of Jin
(Jin Zhaogong 晉昭公)
Ji Yi 姬夷 532-526
Duke Qing of Jin
(Jin Qinggong 晉頃公)
Ji Qubing 姬去病 526-512
Duke Ding of Jin
(Jin Dinggong 晉定公)
Ji Wu 姬午
Jin dominated by the Six Ministerial Clans (Liuqing 六卿): Han 韓, Zhao 趙, Wei 魏, Fan 范, Zhonghang 中行, and Zhi 知 (智)
Duke Chu of Jin
(Jin Chugong 晉出公)
Ji Zao 姬鑿 475-457
Duke Ai of Jin
(Jin Aigong 晉哀公)
Ji Jiao 姬驕 457-438
Duke You of Jin
(Jin Yougong 晉幽公)
Ji Liu 姬柳 438-420
Duke Lie of Jin
(Jin Liegong 晉烈公)
Ji Zhi 姬止 420-393
Duke Xiao or Huan of Jin
(Jin Xiaogong 晉孝公, Jin Huangong 晉桓公)
Ji Qi 姬頎 393-378
Duke Jing of Jin
(Jin Jinggong 晉靜公)
Ji Jujiu 姬俱酒 378-376
376 Jin destroyed by the Three Clans Han 韓, Wei 魏, and Zhao 趙 (Sanjin 三晉 "Three Jin").
Shiji 史記, 39, Jin shijia 晉世家.
Luo Shilie 羅世烈 (1992). "Jin 晉", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 1, 470-471.