An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History and Literature

Huijiangzhi 回疆志

Sep 20, 2019 © Ulrich Theobald

Huijiangzhi 回疆志, also called Xinjiang huibu zhi 新疆回部志, is a book on Xinjiang—particularly the southern part, the "Uyghur region" (huijiang 回疆)— written after the subjugation of the rebellious khojas (Ch. hezhuo 和卓) in 1759. It was published by the Manchu Surde (Ch. Su'erde 蘇爾德), courtesy name Taoyuan 韜園, commandant or "Grand Minister" of Kašgar 喀什噶爾大臣.

The book, having a length of 4 juan, was inspired by Grand Minister Consultant (canzan dachen 參贊大臣) Yunggui 永貴 (1706-1783), who participated in the campaign against the Oyirad (Ch. Elute 厄魯特) and used this time to explore the region and gather information. He was supported by surveillance commissioner (guanchashi 觀察使) Gu Shiheng 固世衡. Surde received the draft, shortened it and straightened the text, and also added some information. The book was finished in 1772. It begins with the quotation of two stele inscriptions written by the Qianlong Emperor 乾隆帝 (r. 1735-1795) and praising his victory over the Khojas Khwāja-i Jahān (Ch. Huojizhan 霍集占, Man. Hojijan, the "Lesser Khoja", Xiao Hezhuo 小和卓) and Burhān ad-Dīn (Ch. Boluonidu 波羅尼都, Man. Buranidun, the "Greater Khoja", Da Hezhuo 大和卓), called Pingding Huibu Ye'eryimu (i.e. Yarkant) beiming 平定回部葉爾奇木碑銘, and Pingding Huibu jixong Yixi'erku Nao'er (i.e. Lake Yashilkul) beiming 平定回部紀功伊西洱庫爾淖爾碑銘.

It goes on with the pattern of a local gazetteer, rendering information on geography, topography, climate, cities, customs and habits of the local population, local products, the household registers, tax system, monetary policy, justice, postal system. It finishes by giving concise information of states and tribes beyond the western borders of Xinjiang. This part of the book is a full quotation of Wang Jingzhi's 王敬止 Yiyu zhuanwen lu 異域傳聞錄.

Surde's book is a valuable supplement on Yuan Dahua's 袁大化 (1851-1935) book Xinjiang tuzhi 新疆圖志 from the late 19th century which focuses on the region of Ili (Ch. Yili 伊犁) in the northern part of Xinjiang. It is included in the series Zhongguo fangzhi congshu 中國方志叢書 (1966). Two manuscript versions are owned by the Beijing Library 北京圖書館 and the Nanjing University Library 南京大學圖書館.

Li Xuexin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文郁, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, 1183.
Wang Zhaoming 王兆明, Fu Langyun 傅朗雲, ed. (1991). Zhonghua gu wenxian da cidian 中華古文獻大辭典, Vol. Dili 地理卷 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 133.
Wu Huafeng 吳華峰 (2018). "Huijiang zhi chuzuan benkao 《回疆志》初纂本考", Wenxian 文獻, 2018 (1).
Zhou Weizhou 周偉洲, Ding Jingtai 丁景泰, ed. (2006). Sichou zhi lu da cidian 絲綢之路大辭典 (Xi'an: Shaanxi renmin chubanshe), 786.