Chouhai tubian 籌海圖編 "Illustrated book on maritime preparedness" is a treatise on maritime defece compiled by the Ming-period 明 (1368-1644) writer Zheng Ruoceng 鄭若曾 (1503-1570), courtesy name Bolu 伯魯, style Kaiyang 開陽, from Kunshan 昆山, Jiangsu. He was a disciple of Wang Shouren 王守仁 (Wang Yangming 王陽明, 1472-1529) and a close friend of Gui Youguang 歸有光 (1506-1571) and Tang Sunzhi 唐順之 (1507-1560). Zheng belonged to the staff of Hu Zongxian 胡宗憲 (1512-1565), who was resonsible of fighting coastal piracy.
The 13-juan long Chouhai tubian is related to Zheng's book Jiangnan jinglüe 江南經略, which is in the Siku quanshu 四庫全書 series classified as a military treatise, while the Chouhai tubian is classified as a book on geography, which seems unappropriate.
The Chouhai tubian describes the whole coastline of China, the fortifications along the coast, the methods of defence, the weapons used, the historical development of piracy in the East China Sea and the relations between China and Japan. A very large proportion of the pirates during the 14th and 15th century were Japanese (called wokou 倭寇). Very important is an analysis of the routes pirates used to attack coastal villages and the hinterland in order to forestall further raids. The author also describes which weapons the pirates used to assess their fighting abilities.
Fig. 1. Environments of Ningbo 寧波, Zhejiang
The overview map shows the prefectural city of Ningbo (centre) with its surroundings, including district seats and military garrisons, patrol posts, rivers (hyper-dimensional), mountains, and of course the sea, with Mt. Putuo in the upper right corner. Siku quanshu 四庫全書 edition.
The book is enriched by 114 maps and illustrations showing the whole coastline from the southwestern province Guangxi to the northeast, including the fortifications. It is the earliest collection of maps of China's coastline. For the defence, the book provides instructions of the selection and training of the troops in the garrisons. The most effective method of anticipating raids was reinforcing the fortifications, strengthening the defensive troops' fighting power, to keep the pirates out on the oceans, and, if they approach, instantly attacking them.
The Chouhai tubian had a great influence on practical coastal defence. It is at the same time an important source of the history of piracy at the Chinese coast.
The earliest print of the book dates form the Tianqi reign-period 天啟 (1621-1627) and one copy is owned by the Library of Beijing University 北京大學圖書館. The text is found in the Siku quanshu.
Fan Zhongyi 范中義 (1992). "Chouhai tubian 籌海圖編", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Vol. Junshi 軍事 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 1, 104.
Guo Yuan 郭淵 (2012). "Chouhai tubian yu Mingdai haifang 《籌海圖編》與明代海防", Gudai wenming 古代文明, 2012 (7).
Huang Shuihua 黃水華 (1997). "Chouhai tubian 籌海圖編", in Men Kui 門巋, Zhang Yanjin 張燕瑾, ed. Zhonghua guocui da cidian 中華國粹大辭典 (Xianggang: Guoji wenhua chuban gongsi), 152.
Li Gongzhong 李恭忠, Li Xia 李霞 (2007). "Wokou jiyi yu Zhongguo haiquan guannian de yanbian: Cong Chouhai tubian dao Yangfang jiyao de kaocha 倭寇記憶與中國海權觀念的演進——从《籌海圖編》到《洋防輯要》的考察", Jianghai xuekan 江海學刊, 2007 (6).
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文郁, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 2, 1623.
Li Zhizhong 李致忠 (1983). "Tan Chouhai tubian de zuozhe yu banben 談《籌海圖編》的作者與版本", Wenwu 文物, 1983 (7).
Liu Qing 劉慶 (1996). "Chouhai tubian 籌海圖編", in Feng Kezheng 馮克正, Fu Qingsheng 傅慶升, ed. Zhuzi baijia da cidian 諸子百家大辭典 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 417.
Qiao Jian 喬健 (1993). "Chouhai tubian 籌海圖編", in Ru Xin 汝信, ed. Shijie baike zhuzuo cidian 世界百科著作辭典 (Beijing: Zhongguo gongren chubanshe), 203.
Song Kefu 宋克夫, Shao Jinjin 邵金金 (2011). "Lun Hu Zongxian zai Chouhai tubian bianji zhong de zhongyao zuoyong 論胡宗憲在《籌海圖編》編撰中的重要作用", Zhongnan Daxue xuebao (Shehui kexue ban) 中南大學學報(社會科學版), 2011 (12).
Tong Jie 童傑 (2012). "Zheng Zuozeng Chouhai tubian de lishi jiazhi 鄭若曾《籌海圖編》的史學價值", Shixue shi yanjiu 史學史研究, 2012 (6).
Tong Jie 童傑 (2014). "Shilun MIngdai haifang shiji yu bianzai shiji de guanxi: Yi Chouhai tubian yu Huang-Ming jiubian kao de bijiao wei li 試論明代海防史籍與邊塞史籍的關係——以《籌海圖編》與《皇明九邊檢考》的比較為例", Ningbo Daxue xuebao (Renwen kexue ban) 寧波大學學報(人文科學版), 2014 (11).
Wan Fang 萬方 (2016). "Zhonghua bingshu baodian: Chouhai tubian 中华兵书宝典——《籌海圖編》", Shuwu 書屋, 2016 (7).
Wang Xiangrong 汪向榮 (1983). "Chouhai tubian de banben he zuozhe 《籌海圖編》的版本和作者", Dushu 讀書, 1983 (5).
Wang Zhaoming 王兆明, Fu Langyun 傅朗云, ed. (1991). Zhonghua gu wenxian da cidian 中華古文獻大辭典, Vol. Dili 地理卷 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 370.
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1987). Jiangming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 890.
Xie Xianghao 謝祥皓 (2016). "Dianliang bingshu Chouhai tubian, Haifang tulun 點亮兵書 《籌海圖編》《海防圖論》", Sunzi yanjiu 孫子研究, 2016 (7).
Xu Luying 徐璐瑩 (2017). "Chouhai tubian chengshu yiyi tanxi 《籌海圖編》成書意義探析", Mingzuo xinshang 名作欣賞, 2017 (10).
Zhao Jialin 趙佳霖 (2013). "Cong Chouhai tubian kan Mingchao kangwao douzheng kunnan chongchong de yuanyin 從《籌海圖編》看明朝抗倭鬬爭困難重重的原因", Xue lilun 學理論, 2013 (4).