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Tang caizi zhuan 唐才子傳

Dec 10, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald

Tang caizi zhuan 唐才子傳 "Biographies of eminent Tang poets" is a collection of biographies of poets from the Tang 唐 (618-907) and Five Dynasties 五代 (907-960) periods. It was written by the Yuan-period 元 (1279-1368) scholar Xin Wenfang 辛文房 (early 14th cent.), courtesy name Liangshi 良史, who climbed up the ladder of official career up to vice minister. Together with Wang Zhiqian 王執謙 and Yang Zai 楊載, he is counted among the most famous Yuan period poets. He has compiled a collection of poems, the Pisha shiji 披沙詩集, which is unfortunately lost.

The Tang caizi zhuan is a very important source for the life of a lot of poets from the Tang and especially the Five Dynasties periods. The writers are arranged according to their assessed quality. Xin provides very detalied informations about their lives and careers and the process of state examinations. At the end of each biography the poems of each persons are rated and criticized. In these paragraphs Xin Wenfang also quotes from older sources of literary critique. Inspite of this value, the biographical information of the Tang caizi zhuan is often not correct and contradicts better historiographical sources.

The book was finished in 1304 and originally comprised 10 juan. At the beginning of the Ming period 明 (1368-1644) it was still fully available and was included in total in the encylopaedia Yongle dadian 永樂大典 under the lemma zhuan 傳 "biography". Unfortunately this part of the Yongle dadian was destroyed, but the compilers of the series Siku quanshu 四庫全書 extracted quotations from other, surviving parts of the Yongle dadian.

The biographies of 287 persons (243 in the main text, plus 44 in a supplement) have thus survived and are arranged in 8 juan. A 10-juan long version preserved in Hayashi Jussai's 林述齊 (1768-1841) Japanese series Isson sōsho (Chinese reading Yicun congshu) 佚存叢書 includes the biographies of 278 persons in the main text and 120 in a supplement. The Japanese version was reprinted during the Qing period 清 (1644-1911) by Lu Zhirong 陸芝榮 and later reproduced in the series Zhihai 指海, which is a text-critical edition comparing this version with that in the Siku quanshu.

In 1957 the Gudian wenxue press 古典文學出版社 reprinted this edition as a modern version. The Isson sōsho version was reprinted in 1992 by the Jiangsu guangling guji press 江蘇廣陵古籍刻印社, and in 2003 by the Beijing tushuguan press 北京圖書館出版社.

Table 1. Contents of the Tang caizi zhuan 唐才子傳
1. 崔信明 Cui Xinming, 李百藥 Li Baiyao, 王勃 Wang Bo, 楊烱 Yang Jiong, 盧照鄰 Lu Zhaolin (brother 盧光乘 Lu Guangcheng), 駱賓王 Luo Binwang, 宋之問 Song Zhiwen, 沈佺期 Shen Quanqi, 杜審言 Du Shenyan (grandson 杜甫 Du Fu), 李嶠 Li Qiao, 劉希夷 Liu Xiyi, 陳子昂 Chen Zi'ang, 張説 Zhang Yue, 王翰 Wang Han, 賀知章 He Zhizhang, 張子容 Zhang Zirong, 王灣 Wang Wan, 李昂 Li Ang, 孫逖 Sun Di, 王泠然 Wang Lingran, 崔顥 Cui Hao, 劉眘虛 Liu Shenxu, 祖詠 Zu Yong, 綦毋潛 Qiwu Qian, 崔國輔 Cui Guofu, 儲光羲 Chu Guangxi, 王昌齡 Wang Changling, 常建 Chang Jian, 陶翰 Tao Han
2. 王維 Wang Wei, 孟浩然 Meng Haoran, 殷遙 Yin Yao, 薛據 Xue Ju, 李頎 Li Qi, 崔曙 Cui Shu, 張諲 Zhang Yin, 李白 Li Bai, 岑參 Cen Can, 高適 Gao Shi, 王之渙 Wang Zhihuan, 包融 Bao Rong (sons 包何 Bao He, 包佶 Bao Ji), 閻防 Yan Fang, 丘為 Qiu Wei, 盧象 Lu Xiang (韋述 Wei Shu), 張謂 Zhang Wei, 賈至 Jia Zhi, 沈千運 Shen Qianyun, 孟雲卿 Meng Yunqing, 王季友 Wang Jiyou, 康洽 Kang Qia, 劉長卿 Liu Changqing, 韋應物 Wei Yingwu, 錢起 Qian Qi (son 錢徽 Qian Hui, grandson 錢珝 Qian Xu, nephew 懐素 Huaisu), 張繼 Zhang Ji, 韓翃 Han Hong, 郎士元 Lang Shiyuan, 皇甫冉 Huangfu Ran (brother 皇甫曾 Huangfu Ceng), 獨孤及 Dugu Ji, 戎昱 Rong Yu
3. 嚴維 Yan Wei, 古之奇 Gu Zhiqi, 耿湋 Geng Wei, 張南史 Zhang Nanshi, 蘇渙 Su Huan, 吉中孚 Ji Zhongfu, 司空曙 Sikong Shu, 李端 Li Duan, 竇叔向 Dou Shuxiang (sons 竇常 Dou Chang, 竇牟 Dou Mou, 竇羣 Dou Qun, 竇庠 Dou Xiang, 竇鞏 Dou Gong), 章八元 Zhang Bayuan, 于鵠 Yu Hu , 冷朝陽 Leng Chaoyang, 李益 Li Yi, 暢當 Chang Dang, 崔峒 Cui Dong, 夏侯審 Xiahou Shen, 朱灣 Zhu Wan, 權徳輿 Quan Deyu, 武元衡 Wu Yuanheng, 張登 Zhang Deng, 麴信陵 Qu Xinling, 姚係 Yao Xi (brother 姚倫 Yao Lun), 羊士諤 Yang Shi'e, 楊巨源 Yang Juyuan, 韓愈 Han Yu (張署 Zhang Shu), 陳羽 Chen Yu, 王涯 Wang Ya, 柳宗元 Liu Yuanzong, 王建 Wang Jian, 孟郊 Meng Jiao (陸長源 Lu Changyuan), 張籍 Zhang Ji, 劉义 Liu Yi, 李賀 Li He
4. 張仲素 Zhang Zhongsu, 戴叔倫 Dai Shulun, 長孫佐輔 Zhangsun Zuofu, 劉言史 Liu Yanshi, 李約 Li Yue, 張又新 Zhang Youxin, 楊衡 Yang Heng, 李渉 Li She, 朱晝 Zhu Zhou, 張碧 Zhang Bi (son 張瀛 Zhang Ying), 雍裕之 Yong Yuzhi, 白居易 Bai Juyu, 元稹 Yuan Zhen, 李紳 Li Shen, 賈島 Jia Dao, 莊南傑 Zhang Nanjie, 鮑溶 Bao Rong, 殷堯藩 Yin Yaofan, 沈亞之 Shen Yazhi, 李廓 Li Kuo, 張祐 Zhang You (崔涯 Cui Ya), 熊儒登 Xiong Rudeng, 徐凝 Xu Ning, 韓琮 Han Cong, 韋楚老 Wei Chulao
5. Du Mu 杜牧 (嚴惲 Yan Yun, 張曙 Zhang Shu, son 杜荀鶴 Du Xunhe), 楊發 Yang Fa, 李遠 Li Yuan, 許渾 Xu Hun, 雍陶 Yong Tao, 賈馳 Jia Chi, 李商隠 Li Shangyin, 溫庭筠 Wen Tingyun (紀唐夫 Ji Tangfu, son 溫憲 Wen Xian), 劉得仁 Li Deren, 薛逢 Xue Feng, 趙嘏 Zhao Gu, 李宣古 Li Xuangu (brother 李宣遠 Li Xuanyuan), 姚鵠 Yao Hu, 項斯 Xiang Si, 馬戴 Ma Dai, 孟遲 Meng Chi, 薛能 Xue Neng, 任蕃 Ren Fan
6. 曹鄴 Cao Ye, 鄭嵎 Zheng Yu, 劉駕 Liu Jia, 李頻 Li Bin, 李羣玉 Li Qunyu, 李郢 Li Ying, 儲嗣宗 Chu Sizong, 曹唐 Cao Tang, 鄭巢 Zheng Chao, 于武陵 Yu Wuling, 高駢 Gao Pian, 李昌符 Li Changfu, 汪遵 Wang Zun, 翁綬 Weng Shou, 沈光 Shen Guang, 邵謁 Shao Ye, 司空圖 Sikong Tu, 崔道融 Cui Daorong, 聶夷中 Nie Yizhong, 許棠 Xu Tang, 周繇 Zhou Yao (張演 Zhang Yin), 皮日休 Pi Rixiu, 鄭谷 Zheng Gu, 張喬 Zhang Qiao, 胡曾 Hu Ceng, 來鵬 Lai Peng, 李山甫 Li Shanfu, 趙光遠 Zhao Guangyuan (盧弼 Lu Bi), 趙牧 Zhao Mu (劉光遠 Liu Guangyuan), 牛嶠 Niu Qiao
7. 高蟾 Gao Chan, 任濤 Ren Tao, 羅隠 Luo Yin, 羅鄴 Luo Ye, 羅虬 Luo Qiu, 唐彦謙 Tang Yanqian, 崔魯 Cui Lu, 秦韜玉 Qin Taoyu, 李洞 Li Dong, 崔塗 Cui Tu, 鄭良士 Zheng Liangshi, 唐備 Tang Bei (于濆 Yu Fen), 吳融 Wu Rong, 韓渥 Han Wo, 王駕 Wang Jia, 戴司顔 Dai Siyan, 王煥 Wang Huan, 張鼎 Zhang Ding, 盧延讓 Lu Yanrang, 曹松 Cao Song, 裴説 Pei Yue, 韋莊 Wei Zhuang, 張蠙 Zhang Pin, 王貞白 Wang Zhenbai, 王轂 Wang Gu, 殷文圭 Yin Wengui, 褚載 Chu Dai, 翁承贊 Weng Chengzan, 李中 Li Zhong, 李建勲 Li Jianxun, 孫魴 Sun Fang, 沈彬 Shen Bin (son 沈廷瑞 Shen Tingrui), 江為 Jiang Wei, 廖圖 Liao Tu (劉昭禹 Liu Zhaoyu et al., 鄭凖 Zheng Zhun), 熊皦 Xiong Jiao, 孟賓于 meng Binyu, 孟貫 Meng Guan
8. 隱逸 Hidden scholars:
王績 Wang Ji, 盧鴻 Lu Hong, 張彪 Zhang Biao, 劉方平 Liu Fangping, 秦系 Qin Xi, 張志和 Zhang Zhihe, 陸羽 Lu Yu, 張衆甫 Zhang Zhongfu (趙微明 Zhao Weiming et al.), 朱放 Zhu Fang, 盧仝 Lu Tong, 方干 Fang Gan, 陸龜蒙 Lu Guimeng, 周朴 Zhou Pu, 唐求 Tang Qiu
仙 Immortals (Daoists):
吳筠 Wu Yun, 顧況 Gu Kuang (son 顧非熊 Gu Feixiong), 劉商 Liu Shang, 韓湘 Han Xiang, 施肩吾 Shi Jianwu, 陳陶 Chen Tao, 呂巖 Lü Yan, 陳摶 Chen Tuan
僧 Monks:
靈一 Lingyi, 皎然 Haoran, 無可 Wuke, 清塞 Qingsai, 虛中 Xuzhong, 貫休 Guanxiu, 齊己 Qiji,
妓 Singsong girl:
薛濤 Xue Tao
女道士 Female Daoists:
李季蘭 Li Jilan, 魚玄機 Yu Xuanji
Sources:
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文郁, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), Vol. 1, 998.
Liu Ruiling 劉瑞玲 (1996). "Tang caizi zhuan 唐才子傳", in Jiang Zuyi 蔣祖怡, Chen Zhichun 陳志椿, ed. Zhongguo shihua cidian 中國詩話辭典 (Beijing: Beijing chubanshe), 399.
Qian Changfu 喬長阜 (2003). "Tang Caizi zhuan 唐才子傳", in Bian Xiaoxuan 卞孝萱, ed. Tangdai wenxue baike cidian 唐代文學百科辭典 (Beijing: Hanyu da cidian chubanshe), 1133.
Wang Shuizhao 王水照 (1986). "Tang caizi zhuan", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Vol. Zhongguo wenxue 中國文學 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 2, 831.
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1987). Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 724.
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1994). Zhonghua gu wenxian da cidian 中華古文獻大辭典, Vol. Wenxue 文學卷 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 563.
Zhang Zhonggang 張忠綱, ed. (2000). Quangtangshi da cidian 全唐詩大辭典 (Beijing: Yuwen chubanshe), 1115.