ChinaKnowledge.de -
An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art

Nian'ershi zhaji 廿二史箚記

Sep 5, 2019 © Ulrich Theobald

Nian'ershi zhaji 廿二史箚記 (also written 廿二史札記) is a historical critique of the twenty-two official dynastic histories compiled by Zhao Yi 趙翼 (1727-1814). The title says, "twenty-two" histories because the alternative histories Jiutangshu 舊唐書 and Jiu wudaishi 舊五代史 were at that time not yet canonized, but stood back behind the Xintangshu 新唐書 and Xin wudaishi

The book has a length of 36 juan and an appendix with addenda (Buyi 補遺), mainly on the history of the Liao 遼 (907-1125), Jin 金 (1115-1234), and Yuan 元 (1279-1368) dynasties. Zhao Yi was one of the famous scholars of the time and is often mentioned side by side with Qian Daxin 錢大昕 (1728-1804), author of the critique Nian'ershi kaoyi 廿二史考異 and Wang Mingsheng 王鳴盛 (1722-1797), author of the critique Shiqishi shangque 十七史商榷.

The critique is written in essay-style. It was finished in 1795 and printed in 1800, and thereafter experienced wide circulation because of its excellent quality. Zhao Yi wrote on the authors of the history book, the compilation process and the time of compilation, the sources and their reliability, the relation between official and unofficial historiography, contradictions between history writing and 'reality', the advantages and shortcomings of the arrangements, characters or statements. Of particular value is Zhao's view on trends in history of the nearly 2000-years long period which the twenty-two histories cover, for instance, changes in society or in policy making. Rather weak is Zhao's evaluation of early Qing-period 清 (1644-1911) history.

The book was printed in many editions, for instance, in the series Congshu jicheng chubian 叢書集成初編, or the modern, annotated edition by Wang Shumin 王樹民 from 1984 (Zhonghua Book Company 中華書局).

Sources:
Bian Xiaoxuan 卞孝萱 (2003). "Nian'ershi zhaji 廿二史劄記", in Bian Xiaoxuan 卞孝萱, ed. Tangdai wenxue baike cidian 唐代文學百科辭典 (Beijing: Hanyu da cidian chubanshe), 1124.
Jiaoyu da cidian bianzuan weiyuanhui 《教育大辭典》編纂委員會, ed. (1991). Jiaoyu da cidian 教育大辭典, Part 8, Zhongguo gudai jiaoyu 中國古代教育史 (Shanghai: Shanghai jiaoyu chubanshe), Vol. 1, 359.
Li Bingzhong 李秉忠, Wei Canjin 衛燦金, Li Conglong 林從龍, ed. (1990). Jianming wenshi zhishi cidian 簡明文史知識詞典 (Xi'an: Shaanxi renmin chubanshe), 591.
Li Jintang 李金堂 (1992). "Guanyu Nian'ershi zhaji zuozhe wenti 關於《廿二史箚記》作者問題", Shixue shi yanjiu 史學史研究, 1992 (3).
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文郁, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), Vol. 1, 1535.
Liang Jinghe 梁景和 (1993). "Nian'ershi zhaji 廿二史札記", in Ru Xin 汝信, ed. Shijie baike zhuzuo cidian 世界百科著作辭典 (Beijing: Zhongguo gongren chubanshe), 393.
Liu Guijun 劉貴軍 (2006). "Nian'ershi zhaji shixue pinglun tedian chutan 《廿二史箚記》史學評論特點初探", Anqing Shifan Xueyuan xuebao (Shehui kexue ban) 安慶師範學院學報(社會科學版), 2006 (2).
Liu Jijia 劉及佳 (1980). "Zhao Yi de Nian'ershi zhaji 趙翼的《廿二史箚記》", Shixue shi ziliao 史學史資料, 1980 (8).
Liu Ling 劉玲 (2017). "Zhao Yi Nian'ershi zhaji de lishi kaozheng tedian 趙翼《廿二史箚記》的歷史考證特點", Shixue shi yanjiu 史學史研究, 2017 (6).
Shan Lei 單磊 (2017). "Gaiyu congkao shikao bufen yu Nian'ershi zhaji zhi guan xi li kao 《陔除叢考》史考部分與《廿二史箚記》之關係例考", Zhongguo dianji yu wenhua 中國典籍與文化, 2017 (6).
Shi Xuanyuan 施宣圓 et al., ed. (1987). Zhongguo wenhua cidian 中國文化辭典 (Shanghai: Shanghai shehui kexueyuan chubanshe), 72.
Wang Songling 王松齡, ed. (1991). Shiyong Zhongguo lishi zhishi cidian 實用中國歷史知識辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 732.
Wang Yuguang 王余光, Xu Yan 徐雁, ed. (1999). Zhongguo dushu da cidian 中國讀書大辭典 (Nanjing: Nanjing daxue chubanshe), 1220.
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1987). Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 110.
Zhang Jinxian 張金銑 (2001). "Nian'ershi zhaji zhi zhalu 《廿二史箚記》之箚錄", Shixue shi yanjiu 史學史研究, 2001 (2).
Zhang Ronghua 張榮華 (1994). "Nian'ershi zhaji 廿二史劄記", in Zhou Gucheng 周谷城, ed. Zhongguo xueshu mingzhu tiyao 中國學術名著提要, Vol. Lishi 歷史卷 (Shanghai: Fudan daxue chubanshe), 517.
Zhao Jianling 趙建玲 (2000). "Cong Nian'ershi zhaji kann Zhao Yi de lishiguan 從《廿二史箚記》看趙翼的歷史觀", Zhejiang Shida xuebao 浙江師大學報, 2000 (1).