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Menggu lüli 蒙古律例

Sep 3, 2019 © Ulrich Theobald

The book Menggu lüli 蒙古律例, Manchu title Monggo fafun-i bithe, Mongolian title Mongγol čaγaǰin-u bičig, is a law canon for the Mongols of Inner Mongolia issued by the Court of Colonial Affairs (lifanyuan 理藩院) of the Qing dynasty 清 (1644-1911) in 1643, and in revised editions in 1741 and 1795.

The compilers took into consideration existing customs. The text was issued in Mongolian, Manchu, and Chinese language. It consists of 12 fascicles or chapters with 209 paragraps in total.

The code begins with regulations for the "official" ranks (guanxian 官銜) of the Mongol nobility, for instance, the bestowment of the titles of taiyiji (Ch. taiji 台吉) or tabunang (Ch. tabunang 塔布囊) for the lesser nobility. It continues with regulations for household registrations, taxes, and corvée (hukou chaiyao 戶口差徭); tributes to be delivered to the Qing court (chaogong 朝貢), covenants of the leagues and banners (huimeng xingjun 會盟行軍), military posts at the borders (bianjing kashao 邊境卡哨), the suppression of banditry (daozei 盜賊), issues of homicide (renming 人命), information to the authorities (shougao 首告), the arrest of fugitive criminals (buwangzafan 雜犯), issues of the clergy (lama li 喇嘛例), and pronunciation of verdicts (duanyu 斷獄).

The text of the canon can be compared with corresponding parts of the comprehensive administrative canon Da-Qing huidian 大清會典 and the regulations of the Lifanyuan zeli 理藩院則例. It was printed by the Hall of Military Glory (Wuyingdian 武英殿).

Table 1. Contents of the Menggu lüli 蒙古律例
1 官銜 Tüsimel jerge Official titles
2 戶口差徭 Erüke jarulγ-a Households and corvée
3 朝貢 Mörgür-e irekü, barir-a irekü Visit to the emperor and tributes
4 會盟行軍 čiγulγan čiγulqu ba čiriglekü Reunion of league and military expeditions
5 邊境卡哨 Jaq-a kijaγar qarayul Border and sentinel
6 盜賊 Qulaγai qudal robbery and violence
7 人命 Kümün-ü amin Homicide
8 首告 Jaγalduqu gerečilekü Denounciation and accusation
9 捕亡 Bariqu orγuqu Arrest of escaped criminals
10 雜犯 Baγ-a, saγ-a yal-a Miscellaneous offences
11 喇嘛例 Blam-a nar-un qauli Rules for the clergy
12 斷獄 Jarγu sigükü Judgment and imprisonment
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