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Da-Qing huidian 大清會典

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Da-Qing huidian 大清會典, Yuzhi Da-Qing huidian 御製大淸會典, Da-Qing wuchao huidian 大清五朝會典 or Da-Qing wubu huidian 大清五部會典 is the largest jurisdictional corpus on administrative matters compiled during the Qing period 清 (1644-1911). It describes the structure of each administrative institution of the cental and the local governments, and provides rules for the administration of each kind of issue regulated by the government. As the regulations fixed in the Huidian have law-like status, the collection might be called a canon. It was five times revised, and each time new regulations, based on precedents (zeli 則例, shili 事例) were added.
It is important to note that all later versions retained the original text and just added more recent regulations. This is a procedure also seen in similar compendia like Xu tongdian 續通典, Qing tongdian 清通典, Xu wenxian tongkao and Qing wenxian tongkao. Edicts are listed chronologically. The compilation was overseen by Grand Academicians (daxueshi 大學士) and members of the State Council (junjichu 軍機處) and executed in a special compilation bureau called hudianguan 會典館.
The version from the Kangxi period 康熙 (1662-1722) was based on a similar compendium from the Ming period 明 (1368-1644), Ming huidian 明會典, following a genre of regulations founded with the Tang liudian 唐六典 from the Tang period 唐 (618-907). The huidian type canons described the duties of each office (following the precedent of the Confucian Classic Zhouli 周禮 that was compiled in the late Warring States period 戰國, 5th cent.-221 BCE), the number of officials, the scope of their tasks, and modes of administrative procedure. The texts consists of quotations from imperial edicts and thus gives a picture of the development of regulations over time. Concrete issues were in a more general mode regulated by statutes (dian 典), which were adapted to concrete cases in the shape of precedent decisions (li 例). This mode of arranging jurisdictional texts is also known from the law canon Da-Qing lüli 大清律例 and has historical forerunners, and follows the principle of the gangmu structure 綱目 "basic ropes and detailed meshes". From the Qianlong period 乾隆 (1736-1796) on, individual cases, serving as precedents, were published in a separate collection called Huidian zeli 則例. The later versions of this compendium were called Huidan shili 會典事例. The change of the term follows a change in the structure was due to a more detailed structure of the regulations of each institution, with very detailed headlines for administrative sections and departments, and regulative issues in each chapter. The zeli/shili collections are even more important than the huidian collections, because they presents decisions on concrete issues, while the huidian texts is more general. The versions from the Jiaqing 嘉慶 (1796-1820) and Guangxu 光緒 (1875-1908) periods, also called Xuxiu Da-Qing huidian 續修大清會典, are accompanied by an illustrated compendium called Huidian tu 會典圖. It shows how altars looked like, ritual implements, musical instruments, insignia, robes and caps, military equipment, astronomical instruments, instruments used for executing punishments, and maps of the empire.

Canon Length (in juan) Time of compilation Time covered Chief compilers (zheng zongzai guan 正總裁官)
大清會典 262 1684-1690 1636-1686 Isangga 伊桑阿, Wang Xi 王熙
大清會典 250 1727-1732 1687-1727 Intai 尹泰, Zhang Tingyu 張廷玉
(欽定)大清會典 100 1747-1764 1728-1758/62 Prince Yuntao 允祹, Fuheng 傅恒, Zhang Tingyu 張廷玉
(欽定)大清會典則例 180
(欽定)大清會典 80 1801-1818 1758-1812/18 Tojin 托津, Cao Zhenyong 曹振镛
(欽定)大清會典事例 920
目錄 8
(欽定)大清會典圖 132
目錄 2
(欽定)大清會典 100
目錄 1
1886-1899 1813-1887/1909 Kungang 昆崗, Xu Tong 徐桐
(欽定)大清會典事例 1220
目錄 8
(欽定)大清會典圖 270

There are but a few original editions surviving. The Qianlong version (Huidian and Huidian zeli) is included in the imperial collectanea Siku quanshu 四庫全書. The Qianlong version of the Huidian (without Huidian zeli) was reprinted in 1893 by the Tushu jicheng press 圖書集成 in Shanghai. The Commercial Press 商務印書館 in Shanghai published in 1908 a lithographic edition of the Guangxu version (only Huidian). The collectanea Wanyou wenku 萬有文庫 likewise only includes the Guangxu version of the Huidian, without the Huidian shili and Huidian tu. The Zhongwen shuju 中文書局 and the Xin wenfeng Press 新文豐出版公司 in Taibei published a facsimile of the whole Guangxu set. Because the version from the Guangxu reign is the most up-to-date version, it attracted much more attention than the earlier versions from the Kangxi, Yongzheng, Qianlong and Jiaqing reigns. All modern reprints of the canon accordingly made use of the Guangxu edition. The latest edition, published by the Xianzhuang shuju 綫裝書局 as Da-Qing wuchao huidian 大清五朝會典 includes the versions Da-Qing huidian from the Kangxi and Yongzheng reign, the Qinding Da-qing hudian 欽定大清會典 from the Kangxi, Yongzheng and Guangxu reigns, the Da-Qing hudian tu 欽定大清會典圖 from the Jiaqing and Guangxu reigns, but not the Qinding Da-Qing hudian zeli 欽定大清會典則例 from the Qianlong reign and the Da-Qing huidian shili 欽定大清會典事例 from the Jiaqing and Guangxu reigns. This is quite lamentable, as important sources are missing in the complete collection.

1. 宗人府
2. 内閣
3.-7. 吏部
官制 3.-4.
銓政 5.
考察,致仕,告病,功過,期限,交代囘籍 6
守制 6.
世爵,功臣封爵表,封贈,廕叙,土官,書吏 7.
8.-19. 戶部
疆理 8.
户口 9.
田賦 10. Field tax
權量 11.
庫藏,倉庾,積貯 12.
漕運 13.
錢法 14.
鹽法 15.
關税 16.
雜賦 17.
俸餉 18.
蠲卹 19.
20.-57. 禮部
朝會 20.-22.
登極 23.
册立,尊封,册封 24.
經筵,視學,巡幸,御新宮 25.
耕耤,親蠶 26.
授時,頒詔,頒賞 27.
進表,進書,鑄印 28.
婚禮 29.
冠服 30.
貢舉 31.
學校,風教,鄉飲酒禮 32.
儀衛 33.
相見禮 34.
軍禮:親征,命將,獻俘,受俘 35.
祭統 36.
大祀 37.-38., 40.-41., 43.
升配 39.
陵寢 42.
中祀 44.-47.
羣祀 48.-49.
家祭 50.
喪禮 51.-54.
卹典 54.
護日,方伎 55.
賔禮 56.
燕禮, 餼廩, 牲牢 57.
58. 樂部
59.-67. 兵部
官制 59.
職制 60.
守衞,出征 61.
恩卹,土司 62.
營制 63.
軍政,軍功,簡閱 64.
關禁,海禁,詰禁,廵防,公式 65.
馬政,郵政 66.
軍器,兵籍,武科,發配 67.
68.-69. 刑部
刑制,律綱 68.
聽斷,秋朝審,欽卹,督捕 69.
70.-77. 工部
宫殿, 壇廟 71.
城垣, 府第, 公廨, 倉厫, 營房, 物材, 報銷 72.
採捕,鼓鑄,軍器,雜料 73.
河工,海塘,橋道,船政,藏冰 74.
器用,織造,關稅 75.
山陵,墳塋,薪炭,匠役,節慎庫 76.
78. 盛京戸部,盛京禮部,盛京兵部,盛京刑部,盛京工部
79.-80. 理藩院
81. 都察院,通政使司,大理寺
82.-83. 太常寺
84. 翰林院,起居注館,詹事府
85. 光禄寺,太僕寺,順天府,奉天府,鴻臚寺,國子監
86. 欽天監,太醫院
87.-92. 内務府
93. 鑾儀衞
94. 領侍衞府
95.-97. 八旗都統
98. 前鋒統領,護軍統領,嚮導
99. 步軍統領
100. 火器營,圓明園八旗護軍營,健銳營,三旗虎槍營
Contents of the Da-Qing huidian shili
1 宗人府
2 内閣
3-30 吏部
官制 3
月選 4-5
旗員開列 6
遴選 7-8
旗員升補 9
kaoji 考績,舉劾11
期限,赴任,離任 13
給假,歸籍,曠職,營私,書役 14
户口,田宅 15
漕運 17
錢法,鹽法,關稅 18
催徵,承追,災振 19
儀制,文禁,服飾 20
本章,印信 21
科場,學政 22
軍政,馬政,驛遞 23
邊禁,海防 24
斷獄,提解 25
人命,賊盜 26v 逃人,雜犯,禁獄 27
修造,河工 28
守制,改籍 29
世爵,封贈,廕叙,土官,書吏 30
31-55 戶部
疆理 31
户口 32-33
田賦 34-37
權量,庫藏 38
倉庾 39
積貯 40
漕運 41-43
錢法 44
鹽法 45-46
引式 46
關税 47-48
雜賦 49-50
俸餉 51-52
蠲䘏 53-55
56-97 禮部
朝會 56
登極,尊崇 57
册立,尊封,册封 58
經筵,視學 59
巡幸,御新宫 60
耕耤,親蠶 61
授時,頒詔,頒賞 62
進表,進書,鑄印局 63
婚禮 64
冠服 65
貢舉 66-67
學校 68-70
風教,鄉飲酒禮 71
儀衛 72
相見禮 73
軍禮 74
祭統 75
大祀 76-81
中祀 82-83
羣祀,家祭 84
喪禮 85-91
卹典 91
護日,方伎 92
朝貢 93-94
賓館,馬館 95
燕禮 96
餼廪,牲牢 97
98-101 樂部
神樂署 99
和聲署 100-101
201-123 兵部
官制 102
職制 103-107
守衞,大閲,大狩 108
出征 109
恩卹,土司 110
營制 111-112
軍政,軍功,簡閱 113
關禁,海禁 114
詰禁,廵防 115
公式 116-118
車駕清吏司 馬政 119
郵政 120-121
軍器,兵籍 122
武科,發配 123
124-125 刑部
刑制,律綱,聽斷 124
秋朝審,欽䘏,督捕 125
126-138 工部
宫殿,壇廟 126
城垣,府第,公廨,倉廒,營房 127
物材,報銷 128
採捕,鼓鑄 129
軍器,雜料 130
河工 131-133
水利 134
海塘,橋道,船政,藏冰 135
噐用,織造,關税 136
山陵,墳塋,薪炭,匠役,節慎庫 137
製造庫 138
139 盛京戸部 etc.
140-144 理藩院
旗籍清吏司 140
王會清吏司 141
典屬清吏司 142
柔逺清吏司,徠逺清吏司 143
理刑清吏司,銀庫 144
145-150 都察院
151 通政使司,大理寺
152 太常寺
153 翰林院,起居注舘
154 光禄寺
155 太僕寺,奉天府
156 鴻臚寺
157 國子監
158 欽天監,太醫院
159-168 内務府
廣儲司 159
會計司 160
掌儀司 161-163
官學,藥房 163
都虞司,慎刑司 164
營造司,慶豐司 165
上駟院 166
奉宸苑,織染局 167
武備院 168
169 鑾儀衞
170 領侍衞府
171 八旗都統
戶口 172
田宅 173
兵制 174
訓練,授官,襲爵 175
教養,優䘏 176
公式 177
178 前鋒統領,護軍統
179 歩軍統領
180 火器營,健鋭營
Contents of the Da-Qing huidian tu
1-30 禮 Li Rituals
祀典 1-20 Sidian
祭器 21-24 Jiqi
彜器 25 Yiqi
朝會 26-27 Chaohui
燕饗 28-29 Yanxiang
服制 30 Fuzhi
31-56 樂 Yue Music
樂律 31-44 Yuelü
度量權衡 45 Du liang quan heng
樂舞 46-56 Yuewu
57-76 冠服 Guanfu Caps and robes
禮服 57-71 Lifu
吉服72-74 Jifu
常服行服 75 Changfu xingfu
雨服 76 Yufu
77-90 輿衞 Yuwei Chariots and utensils
鹵簿 77-85 Lupu
儀駕 86-88 Yijia
儀仗 89 Yizhang
儀仗采仗 90 Yizhang caizhang
91-106 武備 Wubei Military
甲胄 91-93 Jiazhou
弓箭 94-97 Gongjian
槍礮 98-100 Qiangpao
器械 101-103 Qixie
幄纛 104-106 Wudu
107-138 天文 Tianwen Astronomy
天體 107 Tianli
恆星 108-121 Hengxing
日躔 122 Richan
月離 123-124 Yueli
交食 125-129 Jiaoshi
五星 130-132 Wuxing
算術 133-137 Suanshu
儀器 138 Yiqi
139-270 輿地 Yudi Geography

Sources: Wu Feng 吳楓 (ed. 1987), Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), p. 800. ● Wang Zhaotang 王召棠, Chen Pengsheng 陳鵬生 (ed. 1988), Jianming fazhi shi cidian 簡明法制史詞典 (Zhengzhou; Henan remin chubanshe), p. 39. ● Jiaoyu da cidian bianzuan weiyuanhui 《教育大辭典》編纂委員會 (ed. 1991), Jiaoyu da cidian 教育大辭典, Vol. 8, Zhongguo gudai jiaoyu shi 中國古代教育史 (Shanghai: Shanghai jiaoyu chubanshe), Vol. 1, p. 354. ● Wang Songling 王松齡 (ed. 1991), Shiyong Zhongguo lishi zhishi cidian 實用中國歷史知識辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), p. 733. ● Zhang Jinfan 張晉藩 (1984), "Qing huidian 清會典", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Faxue 法學 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), p. 481. ● Chen Mo 陳墨 (1994), "Qing huidian 清會典", in Zhou Gucheng 周谷城 (ed.), Zhongguo xueshu mingzhu tiyao 中國學術名著提要, Lishi 歷史卷 (Shanghai: Fudan daxue chubanshe), p. 621. ● Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文郁 (ed. 1996), Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, p. 1437. ● Cheng Yaping 成亞平 (1997), "Da-Qing huidian 大清會典”, in Men Kui 門巋, Zhang Yanjin 張燕瑾 (ed.), Zhonghua guocui da cidian 中華國粹大辭典 (Xianggang: Guoji wenhua chuban gongsi), p. 212. ● Wu Shuchen 武樹臣 (ed. 1999), Zhongguo chuantong falü wenhua cidian 中國傳統法律文化辭典 (Beijing: Beijing daxue chubanshe), p. 100.

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