Pinghuapu 瓶花譜 is a book on vase flowers written during the late Ming period 明 (1368-1644) by Zhang Qiande 張謙德 (1577-1643), courtesy name Qingfu 青父, style Mi'an 米庵, from Kunshan 昆山, Jiangsu. He also wrote a book on contemporary painting, Qinghe shuhua fang 清河書畫舫.
The text of the 1-juan book, finished in 1595, can be divided into three parts, the first explaining types of vases (Pinping 品瓶) the second one suitable flowers (Pinhua 品花), and methods of cutting (Zhezhi 折枝), dressing (Chazhu 插貯), cultivation (Ziyang 滋養 ), appropriate (Shiyi 事宜) and inappropriate (Huaji 花忌) methods, and the third part speaks about the acquisition of vases (Huoping 護瓶).
Concerning the selection of vases, the author recommends bronze for spring and winter, and porcelain for the other seasons. The shape of the vase with narrow mouth and broad foot influenced, he says, the preservation of vital energies (qi 氣).
Zhang discerns nine classes of flowers, with orchids, peonies, plums, wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox, lamei 蠟梅), small-petal chrysanthemums, narcissus (shuixian 水仙), Yunnan camellia (? Diancha 滇茶), winter daphne (Daphne odora, ruixiang 瑞香), and Japanese rush (Acorus gramineus, changyang 菖陽) ranking at the top, and Chinese lychnis (Lychnis coronata, jianchunluo 剪春羅), silene or catchfly (Lychnis fulgens, jianqiuluo 剪秋羅), galangal (Alpinia officiarum, gaoliangjiang 高良姜), China pink (Dianthus chinensis, shiju 石菊), Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil, qianniu 牽牛), Chinese quince (Pseudocydonia sinensis, mugua 木瓜), and the grass Lophatherum gracile (danzhuye 淡竹葉) at the bottom.
The six taboos (liuji 六忌) were the use of water from wells, not to change the water frequently, to touch flowers with "greasy hands" (youshou 油手), access by cats and rats, burning incense close by, and closed rooms not allow for air exchange.
The Pinghuapu is included in the series Baichuan xuehai 百川學海, Chongding Xinshangbian 重訂欣賞編, Baoyantang miji 寶顏堂秘笈, Shuofu 說郛, Gujin shuobu congshu 古今說部叢書, Congshu jicheng chubian 叢書集成初編 and Meishu congshu 美術叢書.