ChinaKnowledge.de -
An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art

Jixiao xinshu 紀效新書

Jan 15, 2011 © Ulrich Theobald

Jixiao xinshu 紀效新書 "New book on effectful discipline" is a military treatise written during the Ming period 明 (1368-1644) by Qi Jiguang 戚繼光 xxx. The book has a length of 18 juan. There is also a version from the late Ming period with 14 juan which in some chapters differs from the 18-juan version. The book is enriched with illustrations.

The Jixiao xinshu mainly deals with the body of troops, from selecting able-bodies peasants, grouping them into units, teaching them commands, signals and battle movements, their way of life in the encampments, the art of fighting, and different ways of warfare, especially naval warfare, but also the defence of forts along the coast. From his own personal experience, the author elucidates the most important points to be observed. In a general treatise, Qi Jiguang gives an overview of the situation along the southern coast and describes how troops could be trained to met the challenges the coastal defense was exposed to, for instance. The main enemy at this part of the empire were pirates, not only at the coast, but also far into the hinterland where the raiders had access to along the many rivers and canals.

A general must dispose of a body of able troops on which he could rely in all situations. The spirit of the corps was a very important issue, which could only built up if the troops learned in practice how to fight. Training was a very important method to have an excellent army at hand. If the troops were well-trained in all different methods of fighting, they would be able to immediately obey the commander's order to change tactics according to the actual situation. The Jixiao xinshu describes quite a few contemporary firearms and other weapons used in fighting which shows the wide range of muskets and cannons the Ming armies disposed of.

There are several prints from the Ming and the Qing 清 (1644-1911) periods. One print from 1797 is preserved in Japan. The Jixiao xinshu is included in the series Siku quanshu 四庫全書 and Mohai jinhu 墨海金壺.

Sources:
Beijing dongfang shoucangjia xiehui 北京東方收藏家協會, ed. (1996). Zonghua shoucang da cidian 中華收藏大辭典 (Beijing: Beijing Yanshan chubanshe), 408.
Deng Xingfeng 邓兴锋 (1993). "Mingdai kouyu yanjiu de xin cailiao: Jixiao xinshu yuyan tedian lishuo 明代口语研究的新材料——《纪效新书》语言特点例说", Huaiyin Shizhuan xuebao 淮阴师专学报, 1993 (3): 88-89.
Ding Chuanwei 丁传伟, Zhang Zhen 张珍 (2016). "Jixiao xinshu wuxue jiexi 《纪效新书》武学解析", Lantai shijie 兰台世界, 2016 (18): 128-131.
Du Chao 杜超 (2013). "Jixiao xinshu de shishi qiushi jingshen ji qi xianshi jiejian jiazhi 《纪效新书》的实事求是精神及其现实借鉴价值", Binzhou Xueyuan xuebao 滨州学院学报, 2013 (5): 209-213.
Hou Yang 侯阳 (2014). "Cong Jixiao xinshu he Lianbing shiji kan Qi Jiguang de junshi jiaoyu sixiang 从《纪效新书》和《练兵实纪》看戚继光的军事教育思想", Jingji yanjiu kaokan 经济研究导刊, 2014 (6): 275-276.
Huang Shuihua 黃水華 (1997). "Jixiao xinshu 紀效新書", in Men Kui 門巋, Zhang Yanjin 張燕瑾, ed. Zhonghua guocui da cidian 中華國粹大辭典 (Xianggang: Guoji wenhua chuban gongsi), 152.
Jin Shuangping 金双平 (2015). "Cong Jixiao xinshu kan Qi Jiguang de lianzuozhi 从《纪效新书》看戚继光的“连坐制”", Anhui wenxue (xiabanyue) 安徽文学(下半月), 2015 (8): 157-158.
Kou Yue 寇月 (2018). "Jiyu Jixiao xinshu Quajing pian dui shuaifa jishu de pouxi yanjiu 基于《纪效新书〈拳经篇〉》对摔法技术的剖析研究", Zhonghua wushu 中华武术, 2018 (1): 17-20.
Li Xiaoyan 李晓艳 (2012). "Jixiao xinshu de kanxing yu wushu neirong kao 《纪效新书》的刊行与武术内容考", Zhejiang tiyu kexue 浙江体育科学. 2012 (4): 20-22+27.
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文郁, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 2, 1625.
Li Zhengfu 李正夫 (1993). "Jixiao xinshu 紀效新書", in Shi Quanchang 石泉長, ed. Zhonghua baike yaolan 中華百科要覽 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 283.
Liang Juanjuan 梁娟娟 (2013). "Cong Jixiao xinshu Danqi pian kan Qi Jiguang de zhiqi sixiang 从《纪效新书·胆气篇》看戚继光的治气思想", Binzhou Xueyuan xuebao 滨州学院学报, 2013 (5): 197-203.
Liu Qing 劉慶 (1996). "Jixiao xinshu 紀效新書", in Feng Kezheng 馮克正, Fu Qingsheng 傅慶升, ed. Zhuzi baijia da cidian 諸子百家大辭典 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 416.
Liu Xiangyang 刘向阳 (2001). "Jixiao xinshu, Lianbing shiji de junshi fazhi sixiang 《纪效新书》、《练兵实纪》的军事法制思想", Zhengzhi luncong 政法论丛, 2001(5).
Liu Xudong 刘旭东 (2015). "Cong Qi Jiguang Jixiao xinshu kan Zhongguo wushu he junshi jishu de jiehe 从戚继光《纪效新书》看中国武术和军事技术的结合", Wushu yanjiu 武术研究, 2015 (5): 5-7.
Ma Bin 马斌, Ma Lan 马兰 (2015). "Cong Jixiao xinshu kan Qi Jixuang fazhan wushu shiyongxing sixiang yu duice 从《纪效新书》看戚继光发展武术实用性思想与对策", Dangdai tiyu keji 当代体育科技, 2015 (10): 205-206.
Niu Congwei 牛聪伟, Liang Xiaojuan 梁小娟 (2015). "Cong Jixiao xinghu zhong yinfa dui wushu gongfang yishi de sikao 从《纪效新书》中引发对武术攻防意识的思考", Wushu yanjiu 武术研究, 2015 (6): 35-37.
Pei Qing 裴青 (1993). "Jixiao xinshu 紀效新書", in Ru Xin 汝信, ed. Shijie baike zhuzuo cidian 世界百科著作辭典 (Beijing: Zhongguo gongren chubanshe), 204.
Qi Shan 祁山 (2013). "Jixiao jinshu chuanru Chaoxian bandao de beijing ji yingxiang 《纪效新书》传入朝鲜半岛的背景及影响", Shandong Qingnian Zhengzhi Xueyuan xuebao 山东青年政治学院学报, 2013 (5): 137-140.
Sun Weiguo 孙卫国 (2018). "Jixiao xinshu yu Chaoxian wangchao junzhi gaige 《纪效新书》与朝鲜王朝军制改革", Nankai xuebao (Zhexue shehui kexue ban) 南开学报(哲学社会科学版), 2018 (4): 116-129.
Wan Fang万方 (2016). "Zhonghua bingshu baodian: Jixiao xinshu 中华兵书宝典——《纪效新书》", Shuwu 书屋, 2016 (3): 1.
Wang Zhaocun 王兆春 (1987). "Cong Jixiao xinshu yu Lianbing shiyi kan Qi Jiguang dui gudai junshixue de gongxian 从《纪效新书》与《练兵实纪》看戚继光对古代军事学的贡献", Junshi lishi yanjiu 军事历史研究, 1987 (3): 188-198+102.
Wen Li 温力 (2003). "Cong Qi Jiguang de shisi juan ben Jixiao xinshu kan huoqi de fazhang dui junshi he wushu fazhan de yingxiang 从戚继光的十四卷本《纪效新书》看火器的发展对军事和武术发展的影响", Wuhan Tiyu xueyuan xuebao 武汉体育学院学报, 2003 (1): 152-153+162.
Xie Xianghao 谢祥皓 (2016). "Jixiao xinshu, Lianbing shiji 《纪效新书》《练兵实纪》", Sunzi yanjiu 孙子研究, 2016 (5): 130.
Yang Qingwang 楊慶旺, Ha Hua 哈鏵, ed. (1987). Zhongguo junshi zhishi cidian 中國軍事知識辭典 (Beijing: Huaxia chubanshe), 347.
Yue Ling 岳岭 (2012). "Jixiao xinshu junshi sixiang de yanjiu shulüe 《纪效新书》军事思想的研究述略", Jiamusi Zhiye Xueyuan xuebao 佳木斯职业学院学报, 2012 (9): 26+28,
Zhang Lijun 张立军 (2013). "Jixiao xinshu Quanjing jieyao pian dui Ming-Qing quanshu de yingxiang qiantan 《纪效新书·拳经捷要篇》对明清拳术的影响浅探", Lantai shijie 兰台世界, 2013 (26): 158-159.
Zhao Na 赵娜 (2012). "Mao Yuanyi Wubeizhi yu Qi Jiguang zhushu guanxi kao 茅元仪《武备志》与戚继光著述关系考", Henan Shifan Daxue xuebao (Zhexue shehui kexue ban) 河南师范大学学报(哲学社会科学版), 2012 (3): 141-144.
Zhu Xiaohong 朱晓红 (2006). "Jixiao xinshu junfa sixiang jiexi 《纪效新书》“军法”思想解析", Xi'an Zhengzhi Xueyuan xuebao 西安政治学院学报. 2006 (4): 60-63.
Zhu Xiaohong 朱晓红 (2013). "Woguo chuantong zhijun sixiang de jiben tedian: Yi Jixiao xinshu wei li 我国传统治军思想的基本特点——以《纪效新书》为例", Binzhou Xueyuan xuebao 滨州学院学报, 2013 (5): 204-208.
Zou Jing 鄒經 (1989). "Jixiao xinshu 紀效新書", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, part Junshi 軍事 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 1, 440.