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Chinese History - Southern Han Dynasty 南漢 (Yue 粵; 917-971)

Liu Qian 劉謙 was a powerful regional inspector (cishi 刺史) of Fengzhou 封州 (modern Xuzhou 徐州/Jiangsu), followed by his son Liu Yin 劉隱 (posthumous Nanhan Liezong 南漢烈宗 - see titles of emperors) who was installed as military commissioner (jiedushi 節度使) of Qinghai 清海 in 905 and enfeoffed as king of Pengjun 彭郡 in 907, later as king of Nanping 南平, then king of Nanhai 南海. Together with his brother Liu Yan 劉岩 he conquered the whole region of Lingnan 嶺南 (modern Guangxi and Guangdong). Liu Yan, ruler from 911 on (posthumous Nanhan Gaozu 南漢高祖), proclaimed himself emperor of Dayue 大越, then of Han 漢 (Southern Han, Nanhan 南漢) in 917. The empire of Southern Han was understood as a civilian empire, and Liu Yan did not lay stress on the military education. Because of his extravagancies, he faced a rebellion of Zhang Yuxian 張遇賢 in 942. His successor Liu Sheng 劉晟 (posthumous Nanhan Zhongzong 南漢中宗) was able to conquer the empire of Chu in 951. The rebels around Zhang Yuxian requested the help of the empire of Southern Tang (Nantang 南唐) that defeated the last ruler of Southern Han. The armies of Song 宋 finally conquered this most southern territory of China in 971.

Rulers of Southern Han 南漢 (Yue 粵; 917-971)
Capital: Fanyu 番禺 (modern Guangzhou 廣州, Guangdong)
temple name
-----reign periods
personal name
Nanhan Liezong 南漢烈宗 Liu Yin 劉隱
Nanhan Gaozu 南漢高祖 (r. 917-941)
-----Qianheng 乾亨 917-924
-----Bailong 白龍 925-927
------Dayou 大有 928-941
Liu Yan 劉巖 (or Yan 龑, Zhi 陟)
Nanhan Shangdi 南漢殤帝 (r. 942)
-----Guangtian 光天 942
Liu Fen 劉玢 (or Hongdu 宏度)
Nanhan Zhongzong 南漢中宗 (r. 943-957)
-----Yingqian 應乾 943
-----Qianhe 乾和 943-957
Liu Cheng 劉晟 (or Hongxi 宏熙)
The Last Ruler (Houzhu) of Southern Han 南漢後主, Prince of Nanyue 南越王 (r. 958-971)
-----Dabao 大寶 958-971
Liu Jixing 劉繼興 (or Chang 鋹)
971 Southern Han conquered by Song 宋.

Source:
Zhonguo lishi da cidian bianzuan weiyuanhui 中國歷史大辭典編纂委員會 (ed. 2000), Zhongguo lishi da cidian 中國歷史大辭典, Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chubanshe, vol.2, pp. 3337, 3339, 3341.

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June 22, 2013 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail