Zhiwu mingshi tukao 植物名實圖考 is a book on flowers and non-flowering plants compiled during the late Qing period 清 (1644-1911) by Wu Qijun 吳其濬 (1789-1847), courtesy name Yuezhai 瀹齋, style Yulou Nong 雩婁農, from Gushi 固始, Henan.
Wu obtained the jinshi degree in 1816 and was appointed senior compiler (xiuzhuan 修撰) of the Hanlin Academy 翰林院 and then provincial education commissioner (xuezheng 學政) of Hubei and Jiangxi. Being made Academician in the Grand Secretariat (neige xueshi 内閣學士), Wu was promoted to the post of governor (xunfu 巡撫) of Hunan, then Zhejiang, Yunnan and finally of Shanxi, before he became governor-general (zongdu 總督) of Hu-Guang and then of Yunnan. Wu then returned to the central government, where he was 兵部左侍郎，户部右侍郎兼掌管錢法堂事務. His experience in the administration of monetary copper can be seen in his treatises Diannan kuangchan tulüe 滇南礦廠圖略. He also wrote a kind of travel handbook for Yunnan called Dianxing jicheng ji 滇行紀程集.
The aim of Wu's book was to bring clarity into the confusion of botanical names in older texts. There were cases that the same name was used for different plants, or the same plant given different or wrong designations. Wu put a lot of effort into the investigation of such matters, inspected plants by himself, checked descriptions in all types of texts, and added realistic illustrations as a help for his readers.
The whole book consists of a first part of 38 juan of length, an enlarged part of 22 juan (Zhiwu mingshi tukao changbian 植物名實圖考長編). The core part includes the descriptions of 1,714 plants, which is even 500 more than the famous botanical book Bencao gangmu 本草綱目 by Li Shizhen 李時珍 (1518－1593) from the Ming period 明 (1368-1644). It is divided into 12 chapters according to the nature of plants, and presents information on grains (Gulei 穀類), legumes (Shulei 蔬類), herbs growing in mountains (Shancao 山草), plants growing in rocky areas (Shicao 石草), marshland herbs (Xicao 隰草), water herbs (Shuicao 水草), creeping herbs (Mancao 蔓草), odorous herbs (Fangcao 芳草), poisonous herbs (Ducao 毒草), "beautiful and fragrant" herbs (Qunfang 群芳), fruits (Guolei 果類), and economic trees (Mulei 木類). The structure of the book thus follows the traditional pattern of the materia medica (bencao 本草) texts, all the more as Wu does not just provide information on the physical appearance of plants, but also on their medical use. Wu’s scholarly work is of great diligence and reliability by quoting and indicating his sources exactly, providing analytical information, and drawing scientific conclusions. His more than 1,800 drawings are much better and realistic than those of older books. The supplement (Changbian) is arranged in the same manner and presents quotations from ancient books on 838 plants. It is valuable for its commentaries on botanical classics like Shaoyaopu 芍藥譜, Tongpu 桐譜, Julu 橘録, Canshu 蠶書, Xunpu 菌譜, Jupu 菊譜, Mudanpu 牡丹譜 or Lizhipu 荔枝譜.
Figures 1-2. Illustrations from the Zhiwu mingshi tukao 植物名實圖考
Images and description of sesame (called huma 胡麻, but usually zhima 芝麻) and Cannabis sativa (dama 大麻). 1848 Shanxi Taiyuan Fushu 山西太原府署 (Prefectural gvt. of Taiyuan) edition.
Wu's book was extensively used by Emil W. Bretschneider (1833-1901) for his book Botanicon Sinicum: Notes on Chinese Botany from Native and Western Sources (1882-1893). In Japan, the book was received and printed in 1890.
The text must have been finished before 1846. It was printed a year later – after Wu's passing away - by Lu Yinggu 陸應谷, and in 1880 by the Junwen Shuju 濬文書局 in Shanxi. The Commercial Press (Shangwu Yinshuguan 商務印書館) reprinted the book in 1918. The whole text was reproduced in the late 1950s, yet the Changbian part was brought to the market two years later than the first part. The texts is included in the series Wanyou wenku 萬有文庫.
Anon. (1982) "Zhiwu mingshi tukao changbian banben yuanliu biao 《植物名實圖考長編》版本源流表", Yunnan Zhongyi Xueyuan xuebao 雲南中醫學院學報, 1982 (4): 55.
Beijing Dongfang Shoucangjia Xiehui 北京東方收藏家協會, ed. (1996). Zhonghua shoucang da cidian 中華收藏大辭典 (Beijing: Beijing yanshan chubanshe), 513.
Cheng Baochuo 程寶綽 (1989). "Wu Qijun Zhiwu mingshi tukao ji Zhiwu mingshi tukao changbian jianping: Jinian Wu Qijun xiansheng danchen 200 zhou nian 吳其濬《植物名實圖考》及《植物名實圖考長編》簡評——紀念吳其濬先生誕辰200周年", Shengwuxue tongxun 生物學通訊, 1989 (5): 38-39.
Fu Weikang 傅維康 (2008). "Wu Qijun he Zhiwu mingshi tukao 吳其濬和《植物名實圖考》", Shanghai Zhongyiyao zazhi 上海中医药杂志, 2008 (8): 66-67.
Hang Yueyu 杭悦宇 (1990). "Zhiwu mingshi tukao tongming yiwu bianzheng 《植物名實圖考》同名異物辨正", Zhongguo Zhongyao zazhi 中國中藥雜誌, 1990 (1): 7-9+61.
Huang Shengbai 黃勝白, Chen Chongming 陳重明 (1978). "Tantan Zhiwu mingshi tukao 談談《植物名實》圖考", Zhiwu zazhi 植物雜誌, 1978 (5): 42-44.
Huang Shengbai 黃勝白, Chen Chongming 陳重明 (1981). "Zhiwu mingshi tukao he Bencao gangmu zhong de yaowu yitong de tantao 《植物名實圖考》和《本草綱目》中的藥物異同的探討", Fujian Zhongyiyao 福建中醫藥, 1981 (2): 14-17.
Li Ming 李明 (1993). "Zhiwu mingshi tukao 植物名實圖考", in Shi Quanchang 石泉長, ed. Zhonghua baike yaolan 中華百科要覽 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 990.
Lu Shen 陸沈 (1993). "Zhiwu mingshi tukao 植物名實圖考", in Ru Xin 汝信, ed. Shijie baike zhuzuo cidian 世界百科著作辭典 (Beijing: Zhongguo gongren chubanshe), 438.
Nongye da cidian bianji weiyuanhui 《農業大詞典》 編輯委員會, ed. (1998). Nongye da cidian 農業大詞典 (Beijing: Zhongguo nongye chubanshe), 2122.
Qiu Jifeng 邱紀風 (1982). "Zhiwu mingshi tukao changbian kaolüe 《植物名實圖考長編》考略", Yunnan Zhongyi Xueyuan xuebao 雲南中醫學院學報, 1982 (4): 52-54.
Song Zhanqing 宋湛慶 (1991). "Zhiwu mingshi tukao 植物名實圖考", in Zhongguo nongye baike quanshu 中國農業百科全書, Vol. Shengwuxue 生物學卷 (Beijing: Nongye chubanshe), 668.
Sun Zhaoliang 孫兆亮, Xu Weitong 徐維統 (1996). "Zhiwu mingshi tukao 植物名實圖考", in Zhou Gucheng 周谷城, ed. Zhongguo xueshu mingzhu tiyao 中國學術名著提要, Vol. Keji 科技卷 (Shanghai: Fudan daxue chubanshe), 717.
Wang Chunlin 王春林, ed. (2001). Keji bianji da cidian 科技編輯大辭典 (Beijing: Di er junyi daxue chubanshe), 345.
Wang Zichun 王子春, Cheng Baochuo 程寶綽 (1993). "Zhiwu mingshi tukao tiyao 《植物名實圖考》題要", in Gou Cuihua 茍萃華, ed. Zhongguo kexue jishu dianji tonghui 中國科學技術典籍通彙, part Shengwu 生物卷 (Zhengzhou: Henan jiaoyu chubanshe), Vol. 3, 1-4.
Wu Feng 吳楓, ed. (1987). Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 834.
Xia Jinglin 夏經林 (1997). "Zhiwu mingshi tukao 植物名實圖考", in Men Kui 門巋, Zhang Yanjin 張燕瑾, eds. Zhonghua guocui da cidian 中華國粹大辭典 (Xianggang: Guoji wenhua chuban gongsi), 334.
Xu Ping 徐萍 (1989). "Wu Qijun de xuefeng yu Zhiwu mingshi tukao 吳其濬的學風與《植物名實圖考》", Gujin nongye 古今農業, 1989 (2): 76-78.
Zhang Ling 張靈 (2009). "Jianlun Wu Qijun de Zhiwu mingshi tukao 簡論吳其濬的《植物名實圖考》", Zhongguo wenhua yanjiu 中國文化研究, 2009 (3): 45-52.
Zhang Ling 張靈 (2010). "Wu Qijun de kexue jingshen he zhixue taidu: Yi Zhiwu mingshi tukao wei zhongxin de kaocha 吳其濬的科學精神和治學態度———以《植物名實圖考》為中心的考察", Ziran bianzhengfa tongxun 自然辯證法通訊, 2010 (4): 91-95+128.
Zhang Ruixian 張瑞賢, ed. (1998). Bencao mingzhu jicheng 本草名著集成 (Beijing: Huaxia chubanshe), 1306.
Zhang Ruixian 張瑞賢 (2008). "Zhiwu mingshi tukao de zuozhe Wu Qijun 《植物名實圖考》的作者吳其濬", Zhongyiyao wenhua 中醫藥文化, 2008 (4): 34-37.
Zhang Wei 張衛, Zhang Ruixian 張瑞賢 (2007). "Zhiwu mingshi tukao yinshu kaoxi 《植物名實圖考》引書考析", Zhongyi wenxian zazhi 中醫文獻雜誌, 2007 (4): 11-12.
Zhou Zhaoji 周肇基 (1991). "Tu wen bing mao de Zhiwu mingshi tukao 圖文并茂的《植物名實圖考》", Zhiwu zazhi 植物雜誌, 1991 (2): 46-47.
Zhou Zhaoji 周肇基 (1995). "Zhiwu mingshi tukao 植物名實圖考", in Zhongguo nongye baike quanshu 中國農業百科全書, Vol. Nongye lishi 農業歷史卷 (Beijing: Nongye chubanshe), 407.
Zhuang Shufan 莊樹藩, ed. (1990). Zhonghua gu wenxian da cidian 中華古文獻大辭典, Vol. Yiyao 醫藥卷 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe)266.