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Chinese Literature
Daozang 道藏 The Daoist Canon


The first catalogue to list the whole corpus of Daoist writings was the Sandong jingshu mulu 三洞經書目錄 "Index of Classics and Books of the Three Caverns" by Lu Xiujing 陸修靜 in 471. More widespread circulating was the Sandong qionggang 三洞瓊綱 "Three Caverns' Jewel Net", compiled under Emperor Tang Xuanzong 唐玄宗. Song and Jin time catalogues have been lost, like the Da Jin xuandu baozang 大金玄都寶藏 "Great Jin Treasury of the Mystic Capital". The now existant Daoist Canon bases upon a Ming time 明朝 edition, compiled under the Zhengtong Emperor 正統 in 1445, therfore called Zhengtong daozang 正統道藏. The Wanli Emperor 萬曆 (Emperor Shenzong 明神宗, r. 1572-1619) sponsored a supplement in 1607. A first photolithographic reproduction of the Canon was made in 1926, reprinted in 1962 in Taiwan.
The "Three Cavern" classificatory system was made during the fifth century and ordered the Daoist texts under three revelatory traditions:
  • I 洞真 Dongzhen "The Truth from the Cavern" (Shangqing 上清 revelations)
  • II 洞玄 Dongxuan "Mystery from the Cavern" (Lingbao 靈寶 revelations)
  • III 洞神 Dongshen "Spirit from the Cavern" (Sanhuang 三皇 revelations)
The writings of each cavern are divided into 12 different categories:
  1. 本文 Benwen Scriptures
  2. 神符 Shenfu Symbols
  3. 玉訣 Yujue Jade exegesis
  4. 靈圖 Lingtu Numinous diagrams
  5. 譜錄 Pulu Annals
  6. 戒律 Jielü Precepts
  7. 威儀 Weiyi Ritual
  8. 方法 Fangfa Techniques
  9. 衆術 (像術) Zhongshu (Xiangshu) Miscellaneous arts
  10. 記傳 Jizhuan Hagiography
  11. 讚頌 Zansong Hymns
  12. 表奏 Biaozou Memorials
Some important works like the Daodejing 道德經 and Taipingjing 太平經 are not included in this classification and find their place in so-called "Four Lacunae" (Sifu 四輔).
  • I 太玄部 Taixuan The Great Mystery
  • II 太平部 Taiping The Great Peace
  • III 太清部 Taiqing The Great Purity
  • IV 正一(正乙)部 Zhengyi The Orthodox Oneness
Recently discovered texts like the Huangdi sijing 黃帝四經 are not integrated in the canonical corpus.

There is a detailed commentary to the Xuantong Daozang published by Kristofer Schipper, Franciscus Verellen (ed. 2004). The Taoist Canon: A Historical Companion to the Daozang (道藏通考). 3 vols. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press.

三洞 Sandong The Three Caverns (1-981)
Numbers according to the Harvard Yenching index
I 洞真部 Dongzhen The Truth from the Cavern (1-316)
I 1. 本文類 Benwen (1-78)
1 靈寶無量度人上品妙經 Lingbao wuliang duren shangpin miaojing (Durenjing 度人經)
6 上清大洞真經 Taishang dadong zhenjing
31 黃帝陰符經 Huangdi yinfu jing (Yinfujing 陰符經)
I 2. 神符類 Shenfu (79-86)
I 3. 玉訣類 Yujue (87-146)
135 崔公入藥鏡 Cui Gong ruyao jing
145 悟真篇 Wuzhenpian
I 4. 靈圖類 Lingtu (147-163)
I 5. 譜錄類 Pulu (164-176)
166 元始上真眾仙記 Yuanshi shengzhen zhongxian ji (Zhenzhongshu 枕中書) by (Jin) 葛洪 Ge Hong
171 清微仙譜 Qingwei xianpu
173 金蓮正宗記 Jinlian zhengzong ji
I 6. 戒律類 Jielü (177-188)
I 7. 威儀類 Weiyi (189-218)
I 8. 方法類 Fangfa (219-269)
249 中和集 Zhongheji
263 修真十書 Xiuzhen shishu
I 9. 衆術類 Zhongshu (270-289)
282 黃帝宅經 Huangdi zhaijing
I 10. 記傳類 Jizhuan Biographies (290-308)
291 穆天子傳 Mu Tianzi zhuan, comm. by (Jin) 郭璞 Guo Pu
292 漢武帝內傳 Han Wudi neizhuan by (Han) 東方朔 Dongfang Shuo
294 漢武帝外傳 Han Wudi waizhuan by (Han) 東方朔 Dongfang Shuo
294 列仙傳 Liexianzhuan by (Han) 劉向 Liu Xiang
295 續仙傳 Xuxianzhuan by (Southern Tang) 沈汾 Shen Fen
296 歷世真仙體道通鑑 Lishi zhenxian tidao tongjian
299 疑仙傳 Yixianzhuan by (Song) 王簡 Wang Jian
304 茅山志 Maoshanzhi
I 11. 讚頌類 Zansong (309-314)
I 12. 表奏類 Biaozou (315-316)
II 洞玄部 Dongxuan The Mystery from the Cavern (317-619)
II 1. 本文類 (317-387)
331 黃庭內景玉經 Huangting neijing yujing (Huangtingjing 黃庭經)
335 太上洞淵神咒經 Taishang dongyuan shenzhou jing (Shenzhoujing 神咒經)
II 2. 神符類 (388-395)
II 3. 玉訣類 (396-428)
II 4. 靈圖類 (429-441)
II 5. 譜錄類 (442-453)
II 6. 戒律類 (454-464)
II 7. 威儀類 (465-545)
II 8. 方法類 (546-569)
547 靈寶玉鑑 Lingbao yujian
II 9. 衆術類 (570-589)
II 10. 記傳類 (590-606)
599 洞天福地嶽瀆名山記 Dongtian fudi yudu mingshan ji
II 11. 讚頌類 (607-617)
II 12. 表奏類 (615-619)
III 洞神部 Dongshen The Numinous from the Cavern (620-981)
III 1. 本文類 (620-670)
620 清靜妙經 Qingjing miaojing (Qingjingjing 清靜經)
622 太上玄靈北斗本命延生真經 Taishang xuanling beidou benming yansheng zhenjing
664 道德真經 Daode zhenjiing (Daodejing 道德經, Laozi 老子)
666 西昇經 Xishengjing
667 無上妙道文始真經 Wushang miaodao wenshi zhenjing (Guanyinzi 關尹子)
668 沖虛至德真經 Chongxu zhide zhenjing (Liezi 列子)
670 南華真經 Nanhua zhenjing (Zhuangzi 莊子)
III 2. 神符類 (671-675)
III 3. 玉訣類 (676-762)
682 道德真經註 Daode zhenjing zhu
699 道德會元 Daode huiyuan
702 道德玄經原旨 Daode xuanjing yuanzhi
714 道德真經藏室纂微篇 Daode zhenjing zangshi zuanwei pian
746 通玄真經 Tongxuan zhenjing (Wenzi 文子)
747 洞靈真經 Dongling zhenjing (Kangcangzi 亢倉子)
III 4. 靈圖類 (763-768)
III 5. 譜錄類 (769-782)
769 混元聖紀 Hunyuan shengji
782 墉城集仙錄 Yongcheng jixian lu
III 6. 戒律類 (783-789)
784 老君音誦誡經 Laojun yinsong jiejing
III 7. 威儀類 (790-815)
III 8. 方法類 (816-878)
836 枕中記 Zhenzhongji by (Tang) 孫思邈 Sun Simao
837 養性延命錄 Yangxing yanming lu
III 9. 衆術類 (879-952)
918 鉛汞甲庚至寶集成 Qiangong jiageng zhibao jicheng
952 庚道集 Gengdaoji
III 10. 記傳類 (953-971)
960 武當福地總真集 Wudang fudi zongzhen ji
971 甘水仙源錄 Ganshui xianyuan lu
III 11. 讚頌類 (972-978)
III 12. 表奏類 (979-981)
四輔 Sifu The Four Lacunae (982-1421)
I 太玄部 Taixuan The Great Mystery (982-1092)
994 古文龍虎經 Guwen longhu jing
996 周易參同契 Zhouyi cantong qi by (Han) 魏伯陽 Wei Boyang
1008 易圖通變 Yitu tongbian
1010 真誥 Zhengao by (Liang) 陶弘景 Tao Hongjing
1011 道樞 Daoshu by (Song) 曾慥 Zeng Zao
1019 鬼谷子 Guiguzi
1020 天隱子 Tianyinzi
1021 素履子 Sulüzi
1022 無能子 Wunengzi
1023 玄真子 Xuanzhenzi by (Tang) 張志和 Zhang Zhihe
1024 劉子 Liuzi
1025 山海經 Shanhaijing
1026 雲笈七籤 Yunji qiqian by (Song) 張君房 Zhang Junfang
1030 坐忘論 Wangzuolun
1040 皇極經世 Huangji jingshi by (Song) 邵雍 Shao Yong
1038 化書 Huashu (Qiqiuzi 齊丘子) by (Nantang) 譚峭 Tan Xiao
1042 玄珠錄 Xuanzhulu
1046 宗玄先生玄綱論 Zongxuan xiansheng xuanwang lu
1059 上陽子金丹大要 Shangyangzi jindan dayao
II 太平部 Taiping The Great Peace (1093-1158)
1993b 太平經 Taipingjing
1102 淨明忠孝全書 Jingming zhongxiao quanshu
1121 道教義樞 Daojiao yishu
1130 無上祕要 Wushang biyao
1131 三洞珠囊 Sandong zhunang
1154 重陽全真集 Chongyang quanzhen ji
1151 長春子磻溪集 Changchunzi panxi ji (Panxiji 磻溪集)
1155 孫真人備急千金要方 Sun zhenren beiji qianjin yaofang
III 太清部 Taiqing The Great Purity (1159-1182)
1159 太上感應篇 Taishang ganying pian (Ganyingpian 感應篇)
1163 鬻子 Yuzi
1164 公孫龍子 Gongsun Longzi
1165 尹文子 Yinwenzi
1166 子華子 Zihuazi
1167 鴞冠子 Heguanzi
1168 墨子 Mozi
1169 韓非子 Hanfeizi
1170 黃石公素書 Huangshi Gong sushu
1172 孫子註解 Sunzi zhujie
1175 太玄經集註 Taixuanjing jizhu
1176 淮南鴻烈解 Huainan honglie jie (Huainanzi 淮南子)
1177 抱朴子內篇 Baopuzi neipian
1179 抱朴子外篇 Baopuzi waipian
1182 祕傳正陽真人靈寶畢法 Bichuan zhengyang zhenren lingbao bifa
IV 正一部 Zhengyi The Orthodox Oneness (1183-1421)
1210 道法會元 Daofa huiyuan
1215 道門科範大全集 Daomen kefan daquanji
1223 重陽立教十五論 Chongyang lijiao shiwu lun
1238 三洞群仙錄 Sandong qunxian lu
1252 意林 Yilin
1295 葛仙翁肘後備急方 Ge Xianweng zhouhou beiji fang
1296 海瓊白真人語錄 Hai Qiongbai zhenren yulu
1418 長春真人西遊記 Changchun zhenren xiyou ji
Appendices
大明續道藏經 Daming xu Daozangjing (1422-1476)
1451 漢天師世家 Han Tianshi shijia
1466 搜神記 Soushenji
1468 譚子化書 Tanzi huashu
1475 老子翼 Laozi yi
1476 莊子翼 Zhuangzi yi
道藏輯要新增經道目錄(附錄)Daozang jiyao xinzeng jingdao (1-114)
70 張三丰先生全集 Zhang Sanfeng xiansheng quanji

Not included in the Daozang:

老子化胡經 Laozi huahu jing
老子想爾注 Laozi Xiang Er zhu
老子義疏 Laozi yishu
正易心法注 Zhengyi xinfa zhu
周易集說 Zhouyi jishuo
文昌帝君陰騭文 Wenchang dijun yinzhi wen
方壺外史 Fangfu waishi
道書十二種 Daoshu shier zhong
古書隱樓藏書 Gushu yinlou cangshu
道書十七種 Daoshu shiqi zhong
神仙傳 Shenxianzhuan by (Jin) 葛洪 Ge Hong
三教搜神大全 Sanjiao soushen daquan
黃帝四經 Huangdi sijing

Chinese literature according to the four-category system

July 24, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail