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Qing Fu 慶父 and the House of Zhongsun 仲孫

Oct 21, 2012 © Ulrich Theobald

Qing Fu 慶父 "Father Qing" (died 660 BCE), also called "Middle Brother" Zhong Qing Fu 仲慶父, "Middle Brother Gong" 共仲, family name Meng 孟, was a son of Duke Huan of Lu 魯桓公 (r. 712-694) by a secondary wife and the ancestor of the lateral house of Zhongsun 仲孫 (later called Mengsun 孟孫). He served his brother, Duke Zhuang 魯莊公 (r. 694-662), as a consultant minister during the Spring and Autumn period 春秋 (770-5th cent. BCE) in the state of Lu 魯.

When Duke Zhuang fell ill, he consulted his brother Shu Ya 叔牙 about a possible successor, and Shu Ya recommended their common brother Qing Fu, while another brother, Ji You 季友, preferred the crown prince Ban 般 (also written Ban 班). Duke Zhuang, doubting Shu Ya's loyalty to his brother, ordered Ji You to kill Shu Ya.

When the Duke died, Ji You enthroned Duke Zhuang's son Prince Ban. Qing Fu on his side killed Ban and enthroned another son of Duke Zhuang, Prince Qi 啟, who is known as Duke Min 魯湣公 (also written 魯閔公, r. 662-660), but in 660 planned to mount the throne of Lu himself. His attempt to have the nobleman Bu Yi 卜齮 assassinate Duke Min failed and Qing Fu fled to the statelet of Ju 莒.

Ji You enthroned Prince Shen 申, who is known as Duke Xi. He also bribed the Lord of Ju to hand over Qing Fu, whereupon the latter committed suicide. The descendants of Qing Fu founded the family Zhongsun, literally "grandsons of the Middle Brother", that became one of the mighty Three Huan families 三桓 that challenged the ducal house of Lu.

Table 1. Genealogy of the house of Zhongsun 仲孫 or Meng 孟
Duke Huan of Lu 魯桓公 (r. 712-694)
Gongzi Qing Fu 公子慶父 (Zhong Qingfu 仲慶父, Gong Zhong 共仲)
Meng Mubo 孟穆伯 (Gongsun Ao 公孫敖)
Meng Wenbo 孟文伯 (Meng Wenzi 孟文子, Gongsun Gu 公孫穀) Meng Huishu 孟惠叔 (Gongsun Nan 公孫難) two sons
Meng Xianzi 孟獻子 (Zhongsun Mie 仲孫蔑)
Meng Zhuangzi 孟莊子 (Meng Ruzi Su 孟孺子速, Zhongsun Su 仲孫速) Meng Yibo 孟懿伯 Fu Xiaobo 服孝伯 (Zhongsun Tuo 仲孫它, Zifu Tuo 子服它)
Ruzi Zhi 孺子秩 Meng Xiaobo 孟孝伯 (Zhongsun Jie 仲孫羯) Zifu Huibo 子服惠伯 (Zifu Qiu 子服湫, Zifu Jiao 子服椒, Meng Jiao 孟椒) Affiliation unknown: Menggong Chuo 孟公綽
Meng Xizi 孟僖子 (Zhongsun Jue 仲孫貜/玃) Zifu Zhaobo 子服昭伯 (Zifu Hui 子服回)
Meng Yizi 孟懿子 (Zhongsun Heji 仲孫何忌) Nangong Jingshu 南宮敬叔 (Zhongsun Yue 仲孫說) Zifu Jingbo 子服景伯 (Zifu He 子服何)
Meng Wubo 孟武伯 (Meng Ruzi Xie 孟孺子洩, Wubo Zhi 武伯彘) Gong Qi 公期
Meng Jingzi 孟敬子 (Zhongsun Jie 仲孫捷) Affiliation unknown: Meng Zhice 孟之側 (Meng Zhiyou 孟之友)
Sources: Chen Houyao 陳厚耀, Chunqiu Shizu pu 春秋世族譜 (Lianghu Shuyuan edition 兩湖書院正學堂本). Wang Wenyuan 王文源, Chunqiu shizu jilüe 春秋世族輯略.
Source:
Xiong Tieji 熊鐵基, Yang Youli 楊有禮, ed. (1994). Zhongguo diwang zaixiang cidian 中國帝王宰相辭典 (Wuhan: Hubei jiaoyu chubanshe), 381.