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Wujing zongyao 武經總要

Jul 18, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald

Wujing zongyao 武經總要 "Compendium of important matters from the military classics" is an important book on the military system and military administration from the Northern Song period 北宋 (960-1126). It was written by Zeng Gongliang 曾公亮 xxx and Ding Du 丁度 xxx and submitted to the throne in 1045. It consists of 40 juan arranged in two collections (Qianji 前集 and Houji 後集). The title of the book is not quite exact because the Wujing zongyao does not only quote from the ancient classics but provides a vast amount of information on the ancient and contemporary military systems.

In the first collection (Qianji), the military system (zhidu 制度) from ancient times to the Song is explained in 15 juan, describing in detail the art of war, battle tactics, training methods, battle formations, the use of infantry and cavalry units, defence and siege, warfare with fire and water, reconnaissance and espionage, the garrison system, as well as weapons of each kind. In the following 5 juan, the ancient and contemporary systems of border defense (bianfang 邊防) are described, with many informations on the garrison system in each circuit of China, as well as the military situation in the neighbouring empires of Liao 遼 (907-1125) and Western Xia 西夏 (1038-1227).

Figures 1-5. Illustrations from the Wujing zongyao 武經總要
Five formations trained by cavalry units (qibing xi wu bian fa 騎兵習五變法), 1st part. Each of the two blocks (larger, smaller) was headed by a line of banner bearers. Behind them followed riders with polearms (qiang 槍), while the main part of the two bodies consisted of archers (gong 弓). Wujing zongyao 2: 24b-25a. Siku quanshu 四庫全書 edition.
Rectangular encampment (fangying 方營), divided into seven blocks, each of which was surrounded by carts. Wujing zongyao 6: 10.
Large battle formation called "travelling goose" (yan xing zhen 雁行陣). Wujing zongyao 7: 21
Moveable cannon (xingpaoche 行跑車) and mobile folding bridge (zhedieqiao 摺疊橋). Wujing zongyao 10: 13a, 15a.

In the second collection (Houji) important xxx ratschläge from ancient times (gushi 故事) are described in an encyclopaedic style, using ancient sources, in 15 juan. In the last 5 juan, the relationship between climate, weather, the cosmos, astrology and warfare is described (zhanhou 占候), which is very interesting for the history of thought.

The part of the book which attracted scholarship the most is that about firearms in which a whole series of weapons are described used at that time. It is very important for the history of military technology.

The Wujing zongyao is a very important source for the change from a society, in which the military had a very high position, to a state in which the civilian part and the central government prevailed over local military commanders. Because of this change in the perception of governance, generals had lost a lot of independence. They were mere execution tools of the emperor's commands, and not any more personalities of their own. Autonomous decision of a general on the battlefield was more difficult than before.

The concepts of the ancient military classics are nevertheless still adhered to. Exercise, command and obeisance are important necessities without which no army could win. The officers, on the other hand, had to be intelligent and capable to lead the troops to victory.

Of a print from the Ming period 明 (1368-1644), only the first part is preserved. The imperial series Siku quanshu 四庫全書 contains the first and the second part.

Table 1. Contents of the Wujing zongyao 武經總要
前集 First part
1 制度一: 選將, 將職, 軍制, 料兵, 選鋒, 選能
2 制度二: 講武, 教例, 教騎, 旗例, 習勒進止常法, 教平原兵, 教歩兵, 教騎兵鼓角金鉦(教塲等圖), 教法, 教條十六事三令五(申附), 打圍草教法并(圖), 日閲法, 騎兵習五變圖, 歩兵習四變圖, 教弩法并圖, 教弓法
3 制度三: 叙戰上中下, 抽隊, 軍爭, 以寡擊衆, 捉生
4 制度四: 用車, 用騎, 奇兵, 料敵將, 察敵形
5 制度五: 軍行次第并圗, 行為方陣法并圗, 禁諠, 度險, 出隘, 齎糧, 斥堠聽望, 探旗, 探馬,遞舗, 烽火, 行烽, 軍祭, 軍誓, 定惑
6 制度三: 下營法, 營法并三圖, 諸家軍營九説, 下營擇地法, 緣營雜制, 警備, 備夜戰法, 立號, 定舖, 持更, 廵探, 漏刻, 防毒, 尋水泉, 飬病, 征馬
7 制度七: 陣法總說
8 制度八
9 制度九: 九地, 六形, 雜叙戰地, 土俗
10 攻城法
11 水攻并圖, 水戰(濟水附)并圖, 火攻
12 守城并器具(圖附)
13 器圖
14 制度: 賞格, 罰條
15 制度: 行軍約束, 符契, 傳信牌, 字驗, 間諜, 鄉導
16AB 邊防: 河北路, 定州路, 高陽關路, 真定府路
17 邊防: 河東路, 麟府路, 廢壘
18AB 邊防: 陜西路, 鄜延丹坊保安軍路, 邠寧環慶路, 涇原儀渭鎮戎徳順軍路, 秦隴鳯翔階成州路
19 邊防: 益利路益州(今改為成都路), 梓䕫路梓州(重和元年改為潼川府路)
20 邊防: 荆湖北路, 荆湖南路, 廣南東路, 廣南西路
後集 Second part
1 故事一: 上兵伐謀, 不戰屈人之師, 用間, 用謀, 覘國, 用敵人以為謀主, 縱生口
2 故事二: 明賞罰, 軍政不一必敗, 軍無政令必敗, 將帥和必有功, 將帥不和必敗, 法貴不犯, 兵道尚嚴, 臨敵不顧親, 仁愛, 士卒同甘苦, 親受矢石, 撫士, 得士心, 得士死力, 貴先見, 知己知彼, 料敵主將, 料敵制勝, 料敵形勝
3 故事三: 方略, 權奇, 臨事制宜, 詭道, 奇計
4 故事四: 將貴輕財, 將貪必敗, 臨敵易將, 將驕必敗, 矜伐致敗, 不矜伐, 將師自表異致敗, 將帥自表異以奪敵心, 均服, 隱語, 先鋒後殿, 擊其後, 退師
5 故事五: 出奇, 伏兵, 多方以誤之, 聲言欲退誘敵破之, 聲言怠敵取之, 稱降及和因懈敗之, 卑辭怠敵取之, 甘言怠敵以擊之, 擣虛, 擊東南備西北, 聲言擊東其實擊西, 示形在彼而攻於此
6 故事六: 張大聲勢, 先聲後實, 疑兵, 察虛聲, 避實擊虚, 以寡擊衆, 攻其必救, 夜擊, 潛兵襲營, 横擊, 掩襲, 偽退掩襲
7 故事七: 持重, 輕敵必敗, 戒輕舉, 堅壁挫銳, 避銳, 以逸待勞, 矯情安衆, 軍中虚偽, 尅敵安衆心, 辨詐偽
8 故事八: 御士推誠, 與敵推誠, 以恩信結敵人, 知人, 善用人, 解仇用人, 使過, 示信, 示義, 以義感人, 激怒士心
9 故事九: 絶藝, 挑戰, 勢宜决戰, 臨危决戰, 戮力必勝, 驍勇敢前, 陷陣摧堅, 表裏夾攻, 乘勝破敵, 乘機破敵, 乘風雨破敵, 散衆
10 故事十: 兵貴有繼兵無繼(必敗附), 兵多宜分軍相繼, 救兵, 力少分兵必敗, 分兵勢破之, 上速, 示緩攻敵有(緩急附), 示弱, 示彊, 示閑暇, 設詐誤敵此條正(文闕), 素教, 素備, 先設備取勝戒不(備附)
11 故事十一: 新集可擊擊未(集附), 半濟可擊, 飢渴可擊, 心怖可擊, 奔走可擊, 氣衰可擊, 糧盡可擊糧道不繼(必遁附), 不得地利可擊, 天時不順可擊, 不暇可擊, 不戒可擊, 將離部伍可擊, 撓亂可擊, 陣久力疲必敗, 攻不整, 敵無固志可擊, 擊不備, 出不意, 大陣動可敗, 擊未成列
12 故事十二: 餌兵勿食(防毒附), 圍敵勿周, 窮冦勿廹, 高陵勿向, 佯北勿從, 察敵進止, 察敵逃遁, 歸師勿遏, 死地勿攻, 立奇功, 軍師伐國若中路遇大城須下而過, 舍小圖大, 師不襲遠, 軍勝重掠伏襲必敗, 擊歸墮, 地有所不爭
13 故事十三: 察敵降料降詐(降附), 招降, 諭以禍福, 縱舍, 占候, 至誠獲神助, 推人事破灾異, 假托安衆, 下營擇地, 據險, 先據要地, 據水草, 絶水泉, 據倉廪, 斷敵糧道, 伏歸路敗之
14 故事十四: 水戰, 濟水, 斷船路, 引水灌城, 擁水誤敵, 火攻, 用車, 用騎, 遊騎
15 故事十五: 修城柵, 攻城, 守城, 屯田, 讓功, 辭賞
16 占候一: 天占, 地占, 五行占, 太陽占, 太陰占, 陵犯雜占
17 占候二: 日辰占, 五星, 二十八宿次舍, 諸星占, 星變, 風角
18 占候三: 雲氣, 氣象雜占, 軍行災異雜占, 太乙
19AB 占候四: 太乙定主客勝負陽局立成
20 占候五: 六壬, 遁甲
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