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Han Dynasty Emperors

Mar 19, 2016 © Ulrich Theobald
Former or Western Han Dynasty 前漢/西漢 (206 BCE-8CE)
Capital: Chang'an 長安 (modern Xi'an 西安, Shaanxi)
dynastic title (yihao 謚號)
{temple name (miaohao 廟號)}
personal name reign periods (nianhao 年號)
Han Gao Huangdi 漢高皇帝 {Han Gaozu 漢高祖, Taizu 太祖} (r. 206/02-195 BCE) Liu Bang 劉邦
Han Huidi 漢惠帝, Xiaohui Huangdi 孝惠皇帝 (r. 195-188 BCE) Liu Ying 劉盈
Empress Lü (Lü Hou 呂后) or Empress Dowager Lü (Lü Taihou 呂太后) {Gaohou 高后} (reigned 187-180 BCE)
Reigning for two minor emperors (Shaodi 少帝 called Gong 恭 and Hong 弘)
Lü Zhi 呂稚 (Lü Exu 呂娥姁)
Han Wendi 漢文帝, Xiaowen Huangdi 孝文皇帝 {Taizong 太宗} (r. 180-157 BCE) Liu Heng 劉恆 Houyuan 後元 (163)
Han Jingdi 漢景帝, Xiaojing Huangdi 孝景皇帝 (r. 157-141 BCE) Liu Qi 劉啟 Zhongyuan 中元 (149)
Houyuan 後元 (143)
Han Wudi 漢武帝, Xiaowu Huangdi 孝武皇帝 {Shizong 世宗} (r. 141-87 BCE) Liu Che 劉徹 Jianyuan 建元 (140-135)
Yuanguang 元光 (134-129)
Yuanshuo 元朔 (128-123)
Yuanshou 元狩 (122-117)
Yuanding 元鼎 (116-111)
Yuanfeng 元封 (110-105)
Taichu 太初 (104-101)
Tianhan 天漢 (100-97)
Taishi 太始 (96-93)
Zhenghe 征和 or Yanhe 延和 (92-89)
Houyuan 後元 (88-87)
Han Zhaodi 漢昭帝, Xiaozhao Huangdi 孝昭皇帝 (r. 87-74 BCE) Liu Fuling 劉弗陵 Shiyuan 始元 (86-81)
Yuanfeng 元鳳 (80-75)
Yuanping 元平 (74)
Han Xuandi 漢宣帝, Xiaoxuan Huangdi 孝宣皇帝 {Zhongzong 中宗} (r. 74-49 BCE) Liu Xun 劉詢 (Liu Bingyi 劉病已)
Han Yuandi 漢元帝, Xiaoyuan Huangdi 孝元皇帝 {Gaozong 高宗} (r. 49-33 BCE) Liu Shi 劉奭 Benshi 本始 (73-70)
Dijie 地節 (69-66)
Yuankang 元康 (65-62)
Shenjue 神爵 (61-58)
Wufeng 五鳳 (57-54)
Ganlu 甘露 (53-50)
Huanglong 黃龍 (49 XXX)
Han Chengdi 漢成帝, Xiaocheng Huangdi 孝成皇帝 {Tongzong 統宗} (r. 33-7 BCE) Liu Ao 劉驁 Jianshi 建始 (32-29)
Heping 河平 (28-25)
Yangshuo 陽朔 (24-21)
Hongjia 鴻嘉 (20-17)
Yongshi 永始 (16-13)
Yuanyan 元延 (12-9)
Suihe 綏和 (8-7)
Han Aidi 漢哀帝, Xiaoai Huangdi 孝哀皇帝 (r. 7 -1 BCE) Liu Xin 劉欣
Han Pingdi 漢平帝, Xiaoping Huangdi 孝平皇帝 {Yuanzong 元宗} (r. 1 BCE-5 CE) Liu Kan 劉衎 (Liu Jizi 劉箕子) Yuanshi 元始 (1 BCE-5 CE)
Jianping 建平 (6)
Taichu yuanjiang 太初元將 (5)
Jianping 建平 (5-3)
Yuanshou 元壽 (2-1)
Ying the Kid (Ruzi Ying) 漢孺子嬰 (r. 6-8 CE) Liu Ying 劉嬰 Chushi 初始 (8)
Xin Dynasty 新 (8-22 CE)
Usurper 8-22 CE Wang Mang 王莽 Shijianguo 始建國 (9-13)
Tianfeng 天鳳 (14-19)
Dihuang 地皇 (20-23)
Later or Eastern Han Dynasty 後漢/東漢 (25-220 CE)
Capital: Luoyi 雒邑 (also called Luoyang 洛陽, Henan)
Han Gengshidi 漢更始帝, Duke Sheng 聖公 (r. 23-25) Liu Xuan 劉玄 Gengshi 更始 (23-25)
Counter-Emperors
Wei Ao 隗囂 23-32
-----Fuhan 復漢 (or Hanfu 漢復) 23-34 (Wei Chun)
Wei Chun 隗純 33-34
Gongsun Shu 公孫述 25-36
-----Longxing 龍興 25-36
Liu Penzi 劉盆子 25-27
-----Jianshi 建世 25-27
Han Guangwudi 漢光武帝 {Shizu 世祖} (r. 25-57) Liu Xiu 劉秀 Jianwu 建武 (25-55)
Jianwu zhongyuan 建武中元 (56-57)
Han Mingdi 漢明帝, Xiaoming Huangdi 孝明皇帝 {Xianzong 顯宗} (r. 57-75) Liu Zhuang 劉莊 Yongping 永平 (58-75)
Han Zhangdi 漢章帝, Xiaozhang Huangdi 孝章皇帝 {Suzong 肅宗} (r. 75-88) Liu Da 劉炟 Jianchu 建初 (76-83)
Yuanhe 元和 (84-86)
Zhanghe 章和 (87-88)
Han Hedi 漢和帝, Xiaohe Huangdi 孝和皇帝 {Muzong 穆宗} (r. 88-105) Liu Zhao 劉肇 Yongyuan 永元 (89-104)
Yuanxing 元興 (105)
Han Shangdi 漢殤帝, Xiaoshang Huangdi 孝殤皇帝 (r. 105-106) Liu Long 劉隆 Yanping 延平 (106)
Han Andi 漢安帝, Xiao'an Huangdi 孝安皇帝 {Gongzong 恭宗} (r. 106-125) Liu Hu 劉祜 Yongchu 永初 (107-113)
Yuanchu 元初 (114-119)
Yongning 永寧 (120)
Jianguang 建光 (121)
Yanguang 延光 (122-125)
A Minor Emperor (Shaodi) 少帝 (r. 125) Liu Yi 劉懿
Han Shundi 漢順帝, Xiaoshun Huangdi 孝順皇帝 {Jingzong 敬宗} (r. 125-144) Liu Bao 劉保 Yongjian永建 (126-131)
Yangjia 陽嘉 (132-135)
Yonghe 永和 (136-141)
Han'an 漢安 (142-143)
Jiankang 建康 (144)
Han Chongdi 漢沖帝, Xiaochong Huangdi 孝衝皇帝 (r. 144-145) Liu Bing 劉炳 Yongxi 永熹 or Yongjia 永嘉 (145)
Han Zhidi 漢質帝, Xiaozhi Huangdi 漢孝質皇帝 (r. 145-146) Liu Zuan 劉纘 Benchu 本初 (146)
Han Huandi 漢桓帝, Xiaohuan Huangdi 孝桓皇帝 {Weizong 威宗} (r. 146-167) Liu Zhi 劉志 Jianhe 建和 (147-149)
Heping 和平 (150)
Yuanjia 元嘉 (151-152)
Yongxing 永興 (153-154)
Yongshou 永壽 (155-157)
Yanxi 延熹 (158-166)
Yongkang 永康 (167)
Han Lingdi 漢靈帝, Xiaoling Huangdi 孝靈皇帝 (r. 167-188) Liu Hong 劉宏 Jianning 建寧 (168-171)
Xiping 熹平 (172-177)
Guanghe 光和 (178-183)
Zhongping 中平 (184-188)
A Minor Emperor (Shaodi) 少帝 (r. 189) Liu Bian 劉辯 Guangxi 光熹 (189)
Zhaoning 昭寧 (189)
Han Xiandi 漢獻帝, Xiaoxian Huangdi 孝獻皇帝 (r. 189-220) Liu Xie 劉協 Yonghan 永漢 (189)
Zhongping 中平 (189)
Chuping 初平 (190-193)
Xingping 興平 (194-195)
Jian'an 建安 (196-219)
Yankang 延康 (220)
220 Han dynasty replaced by Cao-Wei dynasty 曹魏 (220-265).


The Non-Relative Kingdoms (yixing wangguo 異姓王國) of the Early Former Han period
name (dynastic title)
-----end of the kingdom
transformation into princedom of the imperial family
(tongxing wangguo 同姓王國)
time
Qi 齊
Capital: Linzi 臨菑 (modern Linzi, Shandong)
Han Xin 韓信
-----Transferred to Chu.
Replaced by Liu Fei 劉肥 (Prince Daohui of Qi 齊悼惠王), son of Emperor Gaozu 漢高祖 (r. 206-195 BCE).
203-202
Chu 楚
Capital: Pengcheng 彭城 (modern Xuzhou 徐州, Jiangsu)
Han Xin 韓信, Marquis of Huaiyin 淮陰侯
-----Transferred from Qi; rebelled, executed.
Replaced by Liu Jiao 劉交 (Prince Yuan of Chu 楚元王), brother of Emperor Gaozu.
202
Huainan 淮南 (Jiujiang 九江)
Capital: Shouchun 壽春 (modern Shouxian 壽縣, Anhui)
Ying Bu 英布 (Qing Bu 黥布)
-----Rebelled, executed.
Replaced by Liu Zhang 劉長 (Prince Li of Huainan 淮南厲王), son of Emperor Gaozu.
203-197
Yan 燕
Capital: Ji 薊 (modern Beijing 北京)
Lu Wan 盧綰
-----Rebelled, escaped to the Xiongnu 匈奴.
Replaced by Liu Jian 劉建 (Prince Ling of Yuan 燕靈王), son of Emperor Gaozu.
202
Zhao 趙
Capital: Handan 邯鄲 (modern Handan, Hebei)
Zhang Er 張耳
son Zhang Ao 張敖
---Degraded to Marquis of Xuanping 宣平侯.
Replaced by Liu Ruyi 劉如意 (Prince Yin of Zhao 趙隱王), son of Emperor Gaozu.
203
203-199
Liang 梁
Capital: Huaiyang 淮陽 or Dingtao 定陶 (modern Dingtao, Shandong)
Peng Yue 彭越
------Rebelled with Chen Xi 陳豨, executed.
Replaced by Liu Hui 劉恢 (Prince Gong of Zhao 趙共王), son of Emperor Gaozu.
202-197
Dai 代 (Taiyuan 太原)
Capital: Jinyang 晉陽 (modern Taiyuan, Shanxi), then Mayi 馬邑
Xin, King of Han 韓王信, descendant of King Xiang of Han 韓襄王 (r. 312-296)
-----Rebelled, escaped to the Xiongnu.
Dai becomes commandery, in 197 again Princedom of Liu Heng 劉恆 (Liu Chang 劉常), son of Emperor Gaozu and eventual Emperor Wen 漢文帝 (r. 180-157).
205-202
Changsha 長沙
Capital: Linxiang 臨湘 (modern Changsha, Hunan)
Wu Rui 吳芮 (King Wen of Changsha 長沙文王)
Wu Chen 吳臣 (King Cheng of Changsha 長沙成王)
Wu Hui 吳回 (King Ai of Changsha 長沙哀王)
Wu Ruo 吳若 (King Gong of Changsha 長沙共王)
Wu Chan 吳產 (King Jing of Changsha 長沙靖王)
-----No heir. Replaced by Liu Fa 劉發 (Prince Ding of Changsha 長沙定王), son of Emperor Jing 漢景帝 (r. 157-141).
202
202-194
194-188
188-178
178-157
Source:
Zhonguo lishi da cidian bianzuan weiyuanhui 中國歷史大辭典編纂委員會, ed. (2000). Zhongguo lishi da cidian 中國歷史大辭典 (Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chubanshe), Vol. 2, 3311-3315.