The state of Pishan 皮山 (Türkic name Guma) was located on the southern route of the Silk Road, in the region of modern Pishan, Xinjiang. Its population during the Former Han period 前漢 (206 BCE-8 CE) amounted to 3,500 persons. The king of Pishan was assisted by two generals, two commanders-in-chief (duwei 都尉), a master of the cavalry (qijun 騎君) and a translator. Pishan was the gateway to the route to Kashmir (Jibin 罽賓), Sistan (southeastern Iran) and India. During the Tang period 唐 (618-907), Pishan was conquered by Yutian 于闐.
There were several minor states were located in the Congling Range 蔥嶺 (modern Pamir, Kashmir, Hindukush) which were to be passed when travelling to India. While Pishan, located in the Tarim Basin, was the starting point of the mountain road, travellers passed the states of Xiye 西夜, Zihe 子合, Puli 蒲犁, Yinai 依耐, Deruo 德若, Wulei 無雷, Nandou 難兜, and Wutuo 烏托 (Wucha 烏秅), or, more to the west, through Juandu 捐毒, Xiuxun 休循, Taohuai 桃槐 and Wuyishanli 烏弋山離.
The state of Xiye 西夜 (Türkic name Karghalik), also called Piaosha 漂沙, was located in the area of the modern Yecheng 葉城, Xinjiang. The capital was to be found in the valley of Hujian 呼犍 (also written 呼鞬) that might have been in the place of the modern Ušyarbaš 烏夏爾巴什. The people was probably related to the Tibetans (Qiang 羌) and lived a live as pastoral nomads. During the Former Han period, 4,000 people lived in Xiye, increasing to 10,000 in the Later Han. The region of Xiye was famous for its jade. During the Later Han period the state fell apart in Xiye proper and the state of Zihe 子合 (modern name Shahidullah). It was occupied by the state of Shache 莎車 in the early 1st century CE and at the end of the 2nd century by Shule 疏勒. During the Northern Wei period 北魏 (386-534), the state was renamed Xijuban 悉居半, and was during the Tang period known as Zhujubo 朱居波, Zhujupan 朱居槃, Zhejujia 遮拘迦 or Zhuojujia 斫句迦. At that time, the state of gradually won power over the whole region and the polities of Puli, Deruo and Yinai. The ruling dynasty of Xiye is said to have been related with that of Shule, and the people spoke a language similar to that of Yutian, i.e. an Indo-European tongue, although their appearance was Mongolic ("Asiatic"). The mountain valleys enshrined fertile lands, and the lower regions in the east produced a lot of different fruits. The inhabitants worshipped the Buddha.
The state of Puli 蒲犁 was located in the modern region of Taškurgan 塔什庫爾干, Xinjiang, in the eastern parts of the Pamir Range. The capital is identified by historians as the ruins of Shitoucheng 石頭城. During the Former Han, the population was as large as 5,000 persons. The king of Puli was assisted by a marquis and a commander-in-chief (duwei 都尉). The customs and habits of Puli were said to be similar of those of Zihe. Grain had to be imported from Shache because wheat or even barley did not grow in mountaineous area. During the Southern and Northern dynasties period 南北朝 (300~600), the region was called Kepantuo 渴槃陀, Hepantuo 喝盤陀, Hantuo 漢陀, Keguantan 渴館檀, Keluotuo 渴羅陀 or Qiepantuo 朅槃陀. In the early 7th century, the reigning dynasty came from Shule. The region came in contact with the Tang empire in 635. During the late Tang period the region was occupied by Shule.
The state of Yinai 依耐 was located in the region of modern Yinggišahr 英吉沙 and Shache, Xinjiang. During the Former Han, the population was not larger than 670 persons. The customs and habits were similar to those in Zihe. The ecomical base of the country was cattle breeding. Yinai is not any more mentioned in Chinese sources of the Later Han period.
The state of Deruo 德若, also called Jideruo 紀德若, was located close to Zihe in the Pamir Range in the territory of modern Yecheng 葉城, Xinjiang. It was part of the Protectorate of the Western Territories (Xiyu duhufu 西域都護府) of the Han empire. In the 3rd century CE, Deruo was conquered by Shule.
The state of Wulei 無雷 was located in the Pamir Range. The capital was called Lucheng 盧城. During the Former Han, the population was as large as 7,000 persons. While the clothes of the inhabitans were similar to those of the Wusun 烏孫, who lived north of the Tianshan Range 天山, customs and habits resembled those in the state of Zihe. Wulei is not any more mentioned in Chinese sources of the Later Han period.
The state of Nandou 難兜 was located in the territory of modern Baltistan in Kashmir. During the Former Han period, Nandou was inhabited by 31,000 persons. It was part of the Protectorate of the Western Territories. The inhabitants lived of farming and produced, among other fruits, tasty grapes. Nandou disposed of copper and iron ores and of silver deposits, so that there were also numerous blacksmiths among the population. After the 3rd centry, Nandou was controlled by the Hellenic empire of the Kophen (i.e. Kashmir, Chinese name Jibin 罽賓).
The state of Wutuo 烏托, also called Wucha 烏秅 or Quanyumo 權于摩, was located in the mountains of Badak 巴達克 near modern Shache, Xinjiang. During the Former Han, Wutuo was inhabited by 2,700 persons. The population lived in stone houses scattered in mountain villages and engaged in farming, but also raised a lot of cattle. Wucha was part of the Protectorate of the Western Territories. During the Southern and Northern Dynasties period, it was controlled by the people of the Yeda 嚈噠 (often translated as "Hephthalites"), later by the Türks (Tujue 突厥). During the Tang period, it was part of the area command (dudufu 都督府) of Xiuxun 休循.
The state of Juandu 捐毒 was located in the region of modern Wuqia 烏恰, Xinjiang. It was to be crossed on the way from Shule to the Dayuan 大宛 and the Kangju 康居 (modern Kirgizstan). The capital was located in the valley of Yandun 衍敦谷 and had a population of 1,100 persons. The ecomical base of the country was cattle breeding. Juandu disappeared at the end of the Former Han period.
The state of Xiuxun 休循, also called Xiuyou 休脩, was located in the valley of Alai 阿賴谷 in the Pamir Range. During the Former Han period, it was inhabited by 1,000 persons and disposed of an army of 480 men. Xiuxun was part of the Protectorate of the Western Territories of the Han empire. The population belonged to the people of the Indo-European Sakas (Chinese: Sai 塞) and lived of pastoral nomadism. Customs and clothes were similar to those of the Wusun. During the 3rd century CE Xiuxun was conquered by Shule.
The state of Taohuai 桃槐 was located in the valley of Alai 阿賴谷 in the Pamir Range. During the Former Han period, it was inhabited by 5,000 persons. Xiuxun was part of the Protectorate of the Western Territories of the Han empire. The people of Taohuai were pastoral nomads.
The state of Wuyishanli 烏弋山離 was probably located either around the city of Herat in modern Afghanistan or in Beluchistan or Sistan in southeastern Iran. The Chinese name is probably derived from the name of the city Alexandria Prophthasia (as a distorted form of "Alexandria"). Another Chinese name for the region, Paite 排特, is a short form of the second part of this name.