The Qingwenjian 清文鑒 "Mirror to the national language", officially called Yuzhi qingwen jian 御制清文鑒, is a series of multi-lingual dictionaries from the Qing period 清 (1644-1911) compiled on imperial order. "National language" (literally: "the language of the Qing") means Manchurian. The oldest version, the Qingwen jian, was compiled during the years 1673 to 1708. During the Qianlong reign 乾隆 (1736-1795), some extensions to it were written, the Man-Meng wen jian 滿蒙文鑒 (Manchu-Mongol dictionary), Liangti qingwen jian 兩體清文鑒 (idem), Santi qingwen jian 三體清文鑒 (including Manchurian, Mongolian, and Tibetan), the Zengding qingwen jian 增訂清文鑒 (finished in 1771), Manzhu-Menggu-Hanzi sanhe qieyin qingwen jian 滿珠蒙古漢字三合切音清文鑒, Siti qingwen jian 四體清文鑒 (Manchurian, Mongolian, Chinese, and Tibetan), and the most famous of the series, the Wuti qingwen jian 五體清文鑒 (Manchurian title Han-i araha sunja hacin-i hergen kamciha manju gisun-i buleku bithe "Mirror of the Manchu language with an overview of five different languages, compiled by the Emperor").
The Qingwenjian is 46 juan "scrolls" long, with a supplement of 4 juan, a general introduction (zonggang 總綱) of 8 juan and a supplement to the latter (bu zonggang 補總綱), in 2 juan. It was an attempt to compile a handbook for old Manchurian, which was written in a different way than after the script reform of 1632 (wu juandian Manwen 無圈點滿文 "Manchurian without diacritic dots", tongki fuka akū hergen, in contrast to you juandian Manwen 有圈點滿文, tongki fuka hergen).
This book, finished in 1708, included 280 different themes with more than 12,000 words and terms. The words were arranged alphabetically. The Qianlong emperor first ordered to add phonetic comments to this version, and the dictionary was revised to an enlarged version, the Zengding qingwen jian, with 35 chapters and 292 themes. Each lemma was written in the modern Manchurian script, and translated into Chinese. The Manchurian text was transcribed phonetically into Chinese, and the Chinese explanation of the word was transcribed phonetically into Manchurian. The Qingwenjian and the Sanhe qieyin qingwen jian are included as manuscripts in the imperial collectanea Siku quanshu 四庫全書, the first also in the collectanea Qinzaotang Siku quanshu huiyao 摛藻堂四庫全書荟要.
The Wuti qingwen jian was an extension of the Zengding and the Siti versions and is a five-language dictionary, representing words in Manchurian, Tibetan, Mongolian, Chinese, as well as Turki (Uyghurian). The content was also considerably enlarged. The Wuti qingwen jian is 32 juan long and arranged the vocabulary in 36 encyclopedic fields of meaning, with 292 categories and 556 sub-categories, and a total vocabulary of 17,052 words. There is a supplement of 4 juan length, with 26 more categories and 1,619 additional words, making a total of 36 categories and 18,671 lemmata. For each word, 8 entries are provided: first the Manchurian word, then its Tibetan counterpart, enriched by a literal transcription (qieyin 切音) and a phonetic transcription (duiyin 對音) into Manchurian, then the Mongolian counterpart and the Turki counterpart, supplemented with a phonetic transcription into Manchurian, and finally, the Chinese counterpart of the word or term. The Wuti qingwen jian has, of course, its value as a dictionary, expecially for the multi-language administrative terminology of the Qing period, but also in respect to linguistic studies of the five languages, especially Tibetan, a language whose modern pronunciation differs extremely from the archaic written form, and also for Turki and its dialects.
The Wuti qingwen jian was finished around the year 1790, but the exact date of compilation is not known because there is no preface. It was brought into book form not before 1805. In 1957, the Minzu press 民族出版社 published a faksimile of a manuscript version of the palace library, in three volumes. In 1966, the Japanese scholar Tamura Jitsuzō 田村実造 from the Tōkyō University published a version with a transcription into Latin letters, with the title of Gotai shinbunkan yakukai 五体清文鑒訳解, in two volumes. Another specimen of the original is stored in the British Museum.
In 2013 Oliver Corff published an annotated latinized version (yet in German) of the dictionary, Auf kaiserlichen Befehl erstelltes Wörterbuch des Manjurischen in fünf Sprachen ("Fünfsprachenspiegel"): Systematisch angeordneter Wortschatz auf Manjurisch, Tibetisch, Mongolisch, Turki und Chinesisch, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
Hu Cengyi 胡增益 (1988). "Wuti qing wenjian 五體清文鑒", in: Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Yuyan wenzi 語言•文字, Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe, p. 412.
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文鬰 (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典, Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe, vol. 1, p. 749.
Wu Feng 吳楓 (1987). Jianming Zhongguo guji cidian 簡明中國古籍辭典, Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe, p. 101.
Yang Jianqiao 楊劍橋 (1991). "Wuti qingwen jian 五體清文鑒", in: Zhongguo xueshu mingzhu tiyao 中國學術名著提要, Yuyan wenzi 語言•文字, ed. by Zhou Gucheng 周谷城, Shanghai: Fudan daxue chubanshe, p. 632.
Yang Qingzhen 楊慶鎮 (1993). "Wuti qingwen jian 五體清文鑒" in: Shi Quanchang 石泉長 (ed.), Zhonghua baike yaolan 中華百科要覽, Shenyang: Laoning renmin chubanshe 遼寧人民出版社, p. 54.
|Contents of the Wuti qingwen jian 五體清文鑒|
1. Abka-i šošohon 天部 Heaven|
2. Erin jurgan i šošohon 時令部 Seasons and time
3. Na i šošohon 地部 The earth
4. Han i šošohon 君部 Rulers
5. Hese-i šošohon 諭旨部 Edicts
6. Hafan sindara šošohon 設官部 Offices
7. Dasan i šošohon 政部 Reigning
8. Dorolon i šošohon 禮部 Rites
9. Kumun i šošohon 樂部 Ritual music
10. Šu tacin i šošohon 文學部 Literature
11. Cooha-i gungge i šošohon 武功部 1-2 War
12. Niyalma-i šošohon 人部 1-9 Man
13. Hūwašan doose i šošohon 僧道部 Buddhism and Daoism
14. Ferguwecuke aldungga šošohon 奇異部 Strange things
15. Oktosi saman i šošohon 醫巫部 Medicine and magic
16. Faksi muten i šošohon 技藝部 Arts and skills
17. Dere tomoro šošohon 居處部 Houses and buildings
18. Boigon hethe i šošohon 產業部 1-2 Products
19. Tuwa šanggiyan i šošohon 火部 Fire
20. Suje boso i šošohon 布帛部 Textiles
21. Etuku miyamigan i šošohon 衣飾部 Clothing and adornment
22. Tetun jaka i šošohon 器皿部 Tools
23. Fejilere arara šošohon 營造部 Construction
24. Jahūdai i šošohon 船部 Ships and boats
25. Sejen kiyoo i šošohon 車轎部 Carts and chariots
26. Jetere jaka i šošohon 食物部 1-2 Eating
27. Hacingge jeku i šošohon 雜糧部 Miscellaneous agrarian products
28. Hacingge tubihe i šošohon 雜果部 Miscellaneous fruits
29. Orho i šošohon 草部 Grasses and herbs
30. Moo i šošohon 樹木部 Trees
31. Ilha i šošohon 花部 Flowers
32. Gasha cecike šošohon 鳥雀部 Birds
33. Gurgu i šošohon 獸部 Beasts
34. Ulha ujima i šošohon 牲畜部 Cattle
35. Esihengge hurungge i šošohon 鱗甲部 Fishes and scaly animals
36. Umiyaha i šošohon 蟲部 Insects and worms