An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art

Gongsun Yan 公孫衍

Oct 25, 2012 © Ulrich Theobald

Gongsun Yan 公孫衍, alias Xishou 犀首 "rhino head", was a high minister in the state of Wei 魏 during the Warring States period 戰國 (5th cent.-221 BCE). He hailed from Yinjin 陰晉 (modern Huayin 華陰, Shaanxi) and found his first job as supreme commander (daliangzao 大良造) in the state of Qin 秦.

He soon returned to Wei where he was appointed general by King Hui 魏惠王 (better known as King Hui of Liang 梁惠王, r. 371-335). Based on the experience won in Qin he vehemently argued that the regional states had to fight commonly against the aggressive expansion politics of the state of Qin.

In 323 he contributed to the mutual acknowledgements of the rulers of Yan 燕, Zhao 趙, Zhongshan 中山, Han 韓 and Wei. He was opposed to Zhang Yi's 張儀 suggestion to create an east-west alliance (meng 盟) with Qin and managed the dismission of Zhang by King Hui.

In 319 Gongsun Yan was appointed counsellor (xiang 相) of Wei. In this position he finally forged the alliance of Han, Zhao, Wei, Chu 楚 and Yan against Qin. The Lord of Yiqu 義渠君 was specially entrusted to attack the army of Qin from the rear. Yet the allies were defeated by the militarily superior army of Qin. Gongsun Yan was rewarded with the right to use the seals of counsellor of all five states.

Huang Banghe 黃邦和, Pi Mingxiu 皮明庥, ed. (1987). Zhong-wai lishi renwu cidian 中外歷史人物詞典 (Changsha: Hunan renmin chubanshe), 51.
Li Yaming 李亞明 (1996). "Gongsun Yan 公孫衍", in Feng Kezheng 馮克正, Fu Qingsheng 傅慶升, ed. Zhuzi baijia da cidian 諸子百家大辭典 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 31.
Lu Xiaoyan 陸曉延 (2000). "Gongsun Yan 公孫衍", in Zhonghua Qin wenhua cidian bianweihui 《中華秦文化辭典》編委會, ed. Zhonghua Qin wenhua cidian 中華秦文化辭典 (Xi'an: Xibei daxue chubanshe), 147.
Xiong Tiejin 熊鐵基, Yang Youli 楊有禮, ed. (1994). Zhongguo diwang zaixiang cidian 中國帝王宰相辭典 (Wuhan: Hubei jiaoyu chubanshe), 447.
Yi Xingguo 衣興國, ed. (1988). Shiyong Zhongguo mingren cidian 實用中國名人辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 76.
Yuan Mingren 袁明仁, ed. (1992). Sanqin lishi wenhua cidian 三秦歷史文化辭典 (Xi'an: Shaanxi renmin jiaoyu chubanshe), 11.