ChinaKnowledge.de -
An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art

cishi 刺史, regional inspector

Dec 2, 2015 © Ulrich Theobald

The office of regional inspector (cishi 刺史) was created during the Former Han period 前漢 (206 BCE-8 CE) in order to control and supervise the officials in the thirteen provinces (zhou 州). The first regional inspectors were appointed in 106 BCE, yet inspecting offices had already been created by the Qin (see Censorate). They had no administrative seat, but toured the province under their jurisdiction, observed how the official were carried out in each commandery (jun 郡) and princedom (guo 國), and in particular checked judicial matters. They made use of acatalogue of six criteria (liutiao 六條), namely 1) whether the powerful local families did not acquire so much land that the peasantry impoverished, 2) whether the governors of the commanderies were observing the bureaucratical rules and working for the public, not for their profit, 3) whether they rendered fair and objective judgments unswayed by personal emotions, 4) whether they hired competent personnel, not just favourites and relatives, 5) whether the subordinated personnel was working decently and obeyed the governor's orders, and 6) whether they were corrupt and oppressive. The metropolitan region was controlled by a metropolitan commandant (sili xiaowei 司隸校尉). The official rank corresponded to a salary of 600 bushels (shi 石) of grain, which was actually less than that of the governors (taishou 太守) of commanderies.

Over time these conditions changed and some inspectors were given the title of regional governors (zhoumu 州牧, mu 牧). The inspection tour began in autumn, and at the end of the year each inspector submitted a report to the throne. From the later Former Han period on regional inspectors began to interfere into local matters like the appointment of subordinated officials (xuanju 選舉) or in judicial verdicts (hezou 劾奏). In the Later Han period 後漢 (25-220 CE) the inspection was not any more carried out by the cishi themselves, but by subordinated officials, like retainer clerks (congshishi 從事史) or clerical aides (jiazuo 假佐). The inspectors themselves resided in a fix place, with the consequence that they were in fact provincial governors. With the numerous peasant rebellions occurring in the late second century CE, the cishi were also given military responsibilities, with powers which they continued to practice during the Three Kingdoms period 三國 (220-280). This tendency increased during the Jin period 晉 (265-420), and some 'inspector-governors' were granted the title of commanders-in-chief (dudu 都督) and generals (jiangjun 將軍). Those without the concurrent title of general were called restricted regional inspectors (danche cishi 單車刺史). The duty of the cishi of inspecting officialdom was given up, and they became administrators by themselves, in both civilian and military matters. There were in total classes levels of cishi (civilian and military matters, rank 2; military matters, rank 4; and just civilian matters, rank 5), from the Liang period 梁 (502-557) on six. The highest class had their own offices and staff. At that time the nominal salary of a cishi was 2,000 bushels of grain. The Northern Wei dynasty 北魏 (386-534) even increased the power of the inspector-governors. The highest of them, overseeing the capital, was called metropolitan commandant (sizhou mu 司州牧). In the later phase of the Northern Dynasties period 北朝 (386-581), there were three inspector-governors for each province.

Emperor Yang 隋煬帝 (r. 604-617) of the Sui Dynasty 隋 (581-618) abolished the commanderies, so that the cishi were renamed governors (taishou 太守), which was actually a lower position, and directly administered the districts of the empire. In the metropolitan region, fourteen cishi were appointed, who were responsible for touring the districts for inspection, as it had been common during the Han period. The Tang Dynasty 唐 (618-907) reintroduced an intermediate territorial unit (the former commanderies), calling it zhou (prefectures). Regional inspectors were therefore responsible for much smaller territories than before. The Tang further introduced the use of an official flag (chijie 持節) and a type of warrant (jiajie 假節) for the inspectors, but in practice, they only used a bronze fish (tongyu 銅魚) as a 'badge of office'. Tang period cishi commanded a large staff with administrators (zhangshi 長史), commanders (sima 司馬), administrative aides (biejia 別駕), administrative supervisors (lushi canjun 錄事參軍) and administrators of personnel (sigong canjunshi 司功參軍事), of granaries (sicang canjunshi 司倉參軍事), of revenue (sihu canjunshi 司戶參軍事), of state farms (sitian canjunshi 司田參軍事), of military (sibing canjunshi 司兵參軍事), of law (sifa canjunshi 司法參軍事) and if requisitioned labour (sishi canjunshi 司士參軍事). From the mid-Tang period on the cishi were concurrently defense commissioners (fangyu shi 防禦使) or military training commissioners (tuanlian shi 團練使). They were furthermore subordinated to the military commissioners (jiedushi 節度使) and surveillance commissioners (guanchashi 觀察使).

In the Song period 宋 (960-1279) cishi officials were still appointed, but were just brevet titles, and their bearers salary officials (jiluguan 寄祿官, rank 5) of military nature. The office of cishi was abolished by the Yuan, but the term was until the end of the Qing empire 清 (1644-1912) still used as an unofficial designation for prefects (zhizhou 知州).

Sources:
Li Bingzhong 李秉忠, Wei Canjin 衛燦金, Lin Conglong 林從龍, ed. (1990). Jianming wenshi zhshi cidian 簡明文史知識詞典 (Xi'an: Shaanxi renmin chubanshe), 426.
Lü Zongli 呂宗力, ed. (1994). Zhongguo lidai guanzhi da cidian 中國歷代官制大辭典 (Beijing: Beijing chubanshe), 470.
Wang Cheng 王晟 (1998). "Cishi 刺史", in Tang Jiahong 唐嘉弘, ed. Zhongguo gudai dianzhang zhidu da cidian 中國古代典章制度大辭典 (Zhengzhou: Zhongzhou guji chubanshe), 114.
Wuhan daxue lishi xi Jianming lishi cidian bianweihui 武漢大學歷史系《簡明歷史辭典》編寫組, ed. (1983). Jianming lishi cidian 簡明歷史辭典 (Wuhan: Hubei renmin chubanshe), 782.
Zhang Zhengliang 張政烺, ed. (1990). Zhongguo gudai zhiguan da cidian 中國古代職官大辭典 (Zhengzhou: Henan renmin chubanshe), 594.
Zhou Fazeng 周發增, Chen Longtao 陳隆濤, Qi Jixiang 齊吉祥, ed. (1998). Zhongguo gudai zhengzhi zhidu shi cidian 中國古代政治制度史辭典 (Beijing: Shoudu shifan daxue chubanshe), 51.