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Chinese History - Xia Dynasty Rulers

Periods of Chinese History
Xia Dynasty 夏
Residences: Yangcheng 陽城 or Ji 冀 (modern Dengfeng 登封, Henan), Zhenxin 斟鄩 (Gongxian 鞏縣, Henan), Anyi 安邑 or Xiayi 夏邑 (Xiaxian 夏縣, Shanxi), Pingyang 平陽 (Linfen 臨汾, Shanxi), Jinyang 晉陽 (Taiyuan 太原, Shanxi), Shangqiu 商丘 or Diqiu 帝丘 (Puyang 濮陽, Henan), Yuan 原 (Jiyuan 濟源, Henan), Laoqiu 老丘 (Kaifeng 開封, Henan), Xihe 西河 (Tangyin 湯陰, Henan)
name residence reign length
trad. reign time
Yellow Emperor 黃帝
Chang Yi 昌意
Zhuan Xu 顓頊 (Gao Yang 高陽)
Yu the Great 大禹; clan Xiahou 夏后氏, family name Si 姒
First king of the Xia dynasty. His counsellors were Ji 稷, Xie 契 and Gao Yao 皋陶.
The personal name of Yu the Great was Wen Ming 文命 or Zi 子, his temple name was Zi Second (Zi Yi 子乙). Combining these two characters, the family name Kong 孔 (e.g. Kong Qiu 孔丘=Confucius) was created.
Ji 45 years
Qi 帝啟 Xiayi 16 years
Tai Kang 太康 (or Tai Geng 太庚) Zhenxun 4 years
Zhong Kang 中康 (also written 仲康) Zhenxun 7 years
(Di) Xiang 帝相
The sideline of Zhenguan 斟灌 (later called Diqiu 帝丘) was destroyed
Shang, later Zhenxun 28 years
Han Zhuo 寒浞 (?)
Xiao Kang 小康 Yuan 21 years
(Di) Zhu 帝杼 (or Yu 予, Shu 紓, Bo Shu 伯杼, Zhu 佇 ({佇-丁+一}) or Ning 宁) Yuan, later Laoqiu 17 years
(Di) Huai 帝槐, also called Di Fen 帝芬 or Fen Fa 芬發 44 years
(Di) Mang 帝芒 (or Huang 荒) 58 years
(Di) Xie 帝泄 (or 洩 or Shi 世) 25 years
Bu Xiang 不降
Cedes the throne to his brother Jiong
59 years
(Di) Jiong 帝扃 (or Ju 局 or Yu 禺) 18 years
(Di) Jin 帝厪, also called Yin Jia 胤甲 or Xu 頊 Xihe 8 years
Kong Jia 孔甲 Xihe r. 9 years
(Di) Gao 帝皋 (or Hao 昊 or Gao Gou 皋茍) 3 years
(Di) Fa 帝發, also called Hou Jing 后敬 or Fa Hui 發惠 7 years
(Di) Jie 帝桀, also called Gui 帝癸 or Lü Gui 履癸
The last depraved ruler, enticed by his consort Mo Xi 末喜 (or 末嬉 or Mei Xi 妹喜). After his dethronement by Cheng Tang 成湯 Lü, Marquis of Shang 商侯履, Jie is dwelling in Nanchao 南巢, his descendants were enfeoffed with the fiefdom of Qi 杞 as dukes of Donglou 東樓公.
Zhenxun, later Henan 31 years

Note: Compared with the Shang dynasty 商 (17th-11th cent. BCE) rulers, the persons of the Xia dynasty have less often a binominal posthumous temple name (like Tai Kang, Zhong Kang, Kong Jia). A great number of the Xia rulers instead have one-syllable names (like Jiong, Jin, Gao). These names are preceded by the title "divine ancestor" (di 帝, like Di Xiang 帝相), which is therefore actually no part of the name.

Sources: Zhongguo da cidian bianzuan chu 中國大辭典編纂處(ed., 1936). Guoyu cidian 國語辭典, vol. 4. Beiping [Beijing]: Shangwu yinshuguan. [Rev. ed. Chongqing 1947]. [For the traditional reign dates. These can also be found in otherChinese and Western dictionaries of an older date.]

2000 ff. © Ulrich Theobald · Mail

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