The state of Qiemo 且末 (Türkic name Čerčen) was located on the southern route of the Silk Road, in the area of modern Qiemo, Xinjiang. It capital city was located on the upper course of River Čerčen 車爾臣河. The population was during the Han period 漢 (202 BCE-220 CE) 1,600 persons. The region was famous for its grapes and the cattle. During the Southern and Northern Dynasties period 南北朝 (300~600) there were two cities, namely Mocheng 末城 and Zuomo 左末. At that time the inhabitants cultivated fields but did not know how to use oxen to plough the fields. Tree cultivation was very popular in Qiemo. The region was conquered during the Sui period 隋 (581-618) and transformed into the commandery (jun 郡) Qiemo. In the monk Xuanzang's 玄奘 report of his travels to the West, the Da-Tang Xiyu ji 大唐西域記, the city is called Zhemotuona 折摩馱那.
Southwards of Qiemo, the state of Xiaowan 小宛 (might also be read Xiaoyuan) was located somewhere in the mountaineous area. The population was during the Former Han period about 1,000 persons. The capital city was Yuling 扜零. Their king was aided by a Commander Supporting the State (fuguohou 輔國侯) and two Commanders-in-chief (duwei 都尉).