Oct 29, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald
Leipian 類篇 "Categories book" is a character dictionary whose entries are arranged according to character radicals. It was compiled on imperial order during the Northern Song period 宋 (960-1279) by Wang Zhu 王洙 (997-1057), Hu Su 胡宿 (995-1067) and Zhang Yuxi 掌禹錫 (990-1066) and submitted to the throne in the name of Sima Guang 司馬光 (1019-1086) in 1067. Sima Guang is therefore known as the "author" of the Leipian.
The Leipian was promulgated by the emperor together with the dictionary Jiyun 集韻, in which the characters were arranged according to rhyme groups. Both book were intended to serve as a complement to each other.
The Leipian is divided into 14 chapters, plus one register, each chapter being divided into two parts. The characters are arranged according to the 540 radicals first used by the Later Han-period 後漢 (25-220) dictionary Shuowen jiezi 說文解字, with only minor changes in the sequence of the radicals. It contains 31,319 characters, which is more than the double number than contained in the older dictionary Yupian 玉篇. It also included characters not recorded in the Jiyun, but on the other hand also left out some alternative characters listed in the Jiyun.
Figure 1. Examples from the Leipian 類篇
Examples from the section of the radical
示 "divine matters". It can be seen that for quite a few characters, alternatives are provides. The lemmata are explained concerning pronunciation and meaning. Siku quanshu
For each character first the pronunciation is given according to the fanqie system 反切, and then the meaning(s). The Leipian contains many new characters which had only been created during the Tang 唐 (618-907) and Song periods.
The oldest print was published by the Qing-period 清 (1644-1911) scholar Cao Yin 曹寅 (1658-1712), the so-called Lianting wuzhong ben 楝亭五種本 edition. The most commonly used print is that of Yao Jinyuan 姚覲元 (d. 1902), the so-called Yao ke sanyun ben 姚刻三韻本 edition.
Deng Chunqin 鄧春琴 (2011). "Leipian zai cishu bianzuan tili shi shang de gongxian 《類篇》在辭書編纂体例史上的貢獻", Cishu yanjiu 辭書研究, 2011 (9).
Guo Qinna 郭芹納 et al., ed. (1990). Jianming gu Hanyu zhishi cidian 簡明古漢語知識辭典 (Xi'an: Shaanxi renmin chubanshe), 22.
Li Xueqin 李學勤, Lü Wenyu 呂文郁, ed. (1996). Siku da cidian 四庫大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin daxue chubanshe), Vol. 1, 743.
Liu Jianyu 柳建鈺, Shi Xiaodan 史曉丹 (2016). "Jiyun, Leipian shishou zishu jin kao 《集韻》《類篇》實收字數今考", Bohai Daxue xuebao (Zhexue shehui kexue ban) 渤海大學學報(哲學社會科學版) 2016-05.
Ma Zhongqi 馬重奇 (1993). "Leipian zhong de tongzi chongyun chutan 《類篇》中的同字重韻初探", Fujian Shifan Daxue xuebao (Zhexue shehui kexue ban) 福建師範大學學報(哲學社會科學版), 1993 (7).
Xu Zhumei 許姝梅 (2017). "Leipian de bianzuan sixiang yanjiu 《類篇》的編纂思想研究", Xiandai yuwen (Xueshu zonghe ban) 現代語文(學術綜合版), 2017 (7).
Xu Zhumei 許姝梅 (2017). "Shuowen jiezi yu Leipian be bijiao yanjiu 《說文解字》與《類篇》的比較研究", Xiandai yuwen (Xueshu zonghe ban 現代語文(學術綜合版), 2017 (6).
Yang Zhengye 楊正業 (2008). "Longkan shioujing, Leipian guben kao 《龍龕手鏡》《類篇》古本考", Cishu yanjiu 辭書研究, 2008 (3).
Yang Xiaowei 楊小衛 (2007). "Jiyun, Leipian fanqie bijiao zhong fanying de zhuoyin qinghua xianxiang 《集韻》、《類篇》反切比較中反映的濁音清化現象", Yuyan yanjiu 語言研究, 2007 (9).
Yang Xiaowei 楊小衛 (2009). "Jiyun he Leipian de suzi chutan 《集韻》和《類篇》的俗字初探", Hunan Gongye Daxue xuebao (Shehui kexue ban) 湖南工業大學學報(社會科學版), 2009 (8).
Yang Xiaowei 楊小衛 (2013). "Leipian bianpai tese xilun: Jiyu shuanggui zhi cishu Jiyun, Leipian de duibi fenxi 《韻篇》編排特色析論——基于“雙軌制”辭書《集韻》《類篇》的對比分析", Cishu yanjiu 辭書研究, 2013 (10).
You Rujie 游汝傑 (1992). "Leipian 類篇", in Zhou Gucheng 周谷城, ed. Zhongguo xueshu mingzhu tiyao 中國學術名著提要, Vol. Yuyan wenzi 語言文字卷 (Shanghai: Fudan daxue chubanshe), 324.
Zhou Shiqi 周女琦 (1988). "Leipian 類篇", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Yuyan wenzi 語言•文字 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), 251.