An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art

yulin tuce 魚鱗圖冊, "Fish-Scale" land registers

Sep 16, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald

The so-called yulin tuce 魚鱗圖冊 "fish scale map registers", short yulince 魚鱗冊, were field catasters for the purpose of taxation. Because the maps were drawn quite crudely and the particular parcels of land therefore had the round shape of fish scales the registers were given this strange name. The first fish scale registers date from the prefectures of Wuzhou 婺州 and Zhangzhou 漳州, Fujian, and were planned during the Southern Song period 南宋 (1127-1279), but were probably never created. The method became most widespread during the Ming period 明 (1368-1644). The founder of the Ming dynasty dispatched a large group of tax inspectors under Zhou Zhu 周鑄 to the province of Zhejiang to survey the land allotments of the rich gentry of that region. This objective was to forestall tax evasion. The result of the survey was recorded as a clearance book (qingce 清冊) which served for taxation.

Figure 1. Example of an early Ming period yulin drawing
Source: Zhou, Chen, Qi (1998).

Basis for the registers was the tax revenue quota of each district (xian 縣). The arable surface of the district was thereupon divided into plots (qu 區), each plot corresponding to approximately the same amount of grain to be yielded (sui liang ding qu 隨糧定區 "determining the plots according to the amount of grain"), namely 10,000 shi 石 (a weight measure). The fields within these plots were surveyed in cooperation with the community heads (lizhang 里長) and tithing chief (jiashou 甲首). The guiding person was the tax captain (liangzhang 糧長). Each field was registered according to its seize and the quality of the soil in order to assess an output and, accordingly, a tax quota to be delivered. The register included four positions including the size, shape, and fertility of the land, and the name of the owner.

The registers were then compiled for each district, and assembled for the whole prefecture. The prefecture produced four copies, one of which stayed in the district, one in the prefecture, one was sent to the provincial treasury (buzhengshi si 布政使司), and one to the Ministry of Revenue (hubu 戶部). Generally the fish scale map registers provided a relatively reliable source for taxation and helped amending many shortcomings from the past. It was more soil registered than ever before, and this helped the government obtaining higher tax revenues. After first positive experiences an empire-wide census was organised in 1391 the whole empire was surveyed according to this method, under the supervision of Wu Chun 武淳. The registered arable land increased from 3,667,700 qing (a measure of area) in 1381 to 3,874,700 qing and the tax revenue increased in the same time from 26 million dan (a measure of capacity) to 32 million dan of grain. The last fish-scale registers were compiled in 1866.

Chen Hongbo 陳洪博, ed. (1992). Tudi kexue cidian 土地科學詞典 (Nanjing: Jiangsu kexue jishu chubanshe), 59.
Huang Qichen 黃啟臣 (1992). "Yulin tuce 魚鱗圖冊", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 3, 1419.
Huang Yunwu 黃運武, ed. (1992). Xinbian caizheng da cidian 新編財政大辭典 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 1066.
Liu Furen 劉福仁 et al., ed. (1991). Xinbian nongcun jingji cidian 現代農村經濟辭典 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 133.
Ma Kewei 馬克偉, ed. (1991). Tudi da cidian 土地大辭典 (Changchun: Changchun chubanshe), 1001.
Nongye da cidian bianji weiyuanhui 《農業大詞典》編輯委員會, ed. (1998). Nongye da cidian 農業大詞典 (Beijing: Zhongguo nongye chubanshe), 2026.
Wang Jianzhong 王建忠 (1999). "Yulin tuce zhidu 魚鱗圖冊制度", in Yu Bingjian 余秉堅, ed. Zhongguo kuaiji baike quanshu 中國會計百科全書 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 854.
Wang Meihan 王美涵, ed. (1991). Shuishou da cidian 稅收大辭典 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 873.
Wu Hanmin 吳漢民 (1993). "Yulin tuce 魚鱗圖冊", in Shi Quanchang 石泉長, ed. Zhonghua baike yaolan 中華百科要覽 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 84.
Zhao Xinguo 趙新國 (1998). "Yulin tuce 魚鱗圖冊", in Tang Jiahong 唐嘉弘, ed. Zhongguo gudai dianzhang zhidu da cidian 中國古代典章制度大辭典 (Zhengzhou: Zhongzhou guji chubanshe), 1009.
Zhou Fazeng 周發增, Chen Longtao 陳隆濤, Qi Jixiang 齊吉祥, ed. (1998). Zhongguo gudai zhengzhi zhidu shi cidian 中國古代政治制度史辭典 (Beijing: Soudu shifan daxue chubanshe), 282.