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xuanfushi 宣撫使, pacification commissioner

Jul 8, 2016 © Ulrich Theobald

Pacification commissioners (xuanfushi 宣撫使) were originally high military officials supervising the peace in border regions. Their bureau was called xuanfushi si 宣撫使司. The office was created by the Tang dynasty 唐 (618-907) in 728 for Yuwen Rong 宇文融, military supervisor of the circuit (dao 道) of Hebei. It was only of temporary nature, and taken over by high officials from the central government. The full term was then xuanwei anfu shi 宣慰安撫使 or xuanfu chuzhi shi 宣撫處置使. The nature of the office remained the same under the Song dynasty 宋 (960-1279). Pacification commissioners inspected a circuit and controlled the performance of local officials. In the course of the 11th century the office becem permanent one, as the highest military official (junshui tongshuai 軍事統帥) of a circuit. Counsellor-in-chief Wen Yanbo 文彥博 for instance, was in 1048 dispatched to suppress a rebellion in the prefecture of Beizhou 貝州.

The first military official who was appointed pacification commissioner was Vice Military Affairs Commissioner (shumi fushi 樞密副使) Di Qing 狄青 in 1052. Occasionally, eunuchs like Tong Guan 童貫 took over the job. In 1131 General-in-chief (dajiang 大將) Liu Guangshi 劉光世 was a pacification commissioner, and a year later Li Guang 李光, who was actually Minister of Personnel (libu shangshu 吏部尚書). Both were the high officials, but not members of the central government. The Southern Song 南宋 (1127-1279) created the office of commander-in-chief (dudu junshi 都督軍事), as the highest military official in a circuit. This lowered the status of pacification commissioners. On the other hand, they were given an own permanent bureau, with a lieutentant (xuanfu fushi 宣撫副使) and an assistant (xuanfu panguan 宣撫判官).

The Jin empire 金 (1115-1234) also made use of the office of pacification commissioner, yet their area of command was restricted to the southern regions, where they took over operative functions in the war against the Southern Song empire. The Yuan dynasty 元 (1279-1368) appointed ten pacification commissioners, each of which had also civilian jurisdiction. In that respect, the office of xuanfushi was blended with that of anfushi 安撫使, yet was somewhat lower than the latter. In the late Yuan and during the Ming 明 (1368-1644) and Qing 清 (1644-1911) periods, the designation of xuanfushi (rank 4B) was commonly bestowed to native chieftains (tusi 土司) in the southwestern border regions, making them part of the system of indirect rule over native tribes (jimi 羈縻). The title was hereditary.

Sources:
Chen Zhen 陳振, Wu Yao 伍躍 (1992). "Xuanfushi 宣撫使", in Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史 (Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe), Vol. 3, 1341.
Gao Wende 高文德 (ed. 1995), Zhongguo shaoshu minzu shi da cidian 中國少數民族史大辭典 (Changchun: Jilin jiaoyu chubanshe), 1746.
He Xuzhi 賀旭志, ed. (1991). Zhongguo lidai zhiguan cidian 中國歷代職官辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe), 460.
Lü Zongli 呂宗力, ed. (1994). Zhongguo lidai guanzhi da cidian 中國歷代官制大辭典 (Beijing: Beijing chubanshe), 639.
Zhang Zhenglang 張政烺, ed. (1990). Zhongguo gudai zhiguan da cidian 中國古代職官大辭典 (Zhengzhou: Henan renmin chubanshe), 790.