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jiaoshou 教授, teachers

Oct 26, 2013 © Ulrich Theobald

Jiaoshou 教授 was a term for specialised teachers from the Song period 宋 (960-1279) on. It is first mentioned in the biography of Confucius and his disciples in the history Shiji 史記, where it is said that Zixia 子夏 was a personal teacher (jiaoshou) of Marquis Wen 魏文侯 (r. 424-387) of the state of Wei 魏 in Hexi 河西. The Later Han period 後漢 (25-220 CE) author Wang Chong 王充, author of the book Lunheng 論衡, defines jiaoshou as someone who "opens" the past and all fields of knowledge to his students (tongren 通人 "communicator", hence "expert"). The professors (boshi 博士) for the Confucian Classics were obliged to "instruct and transmit their own propositions (about one text or the whole canon)" (ge yi jia fa jiao shou 各以家法教授).

The office of jiaoshou was created during the Song period, when instructors were appointed in the fields of law (lüxue 律學), medicine (yixue 醫學) and military (wuxue 武學), as well as for the sons of emperors (zongxue 宗學 "school of the imperial line") and the households of princes (wangfu 王府), and in public school in all districts and prefectures throughout the empire. Their textbooks consisted mainly of the Confucian Classics, but also of specialized books in the discipline they were representing. The canon of the Classics shows that the profession of jiaoshou was originally similar to that of the boshi "erudites", better: professors, for the Confucian writings that served in the Directorate of Education (guozijian 國子監) and its most important educational institution, the National University (taixue 太學).

Teachers did not only instruct their students, but also organised tests to prepare students for the participation in the state examinations. In 1044 an imperial edict regulated the creation of district schools (xianxue 縣學) as depending on the number of students in a prefecture. If it surpassed 200, it was allowed for the respective prefect to establish district schools. This practically meant that in all districts schools were opened that were headed by a jiaoshou. Teachers were appointed according to recommendation from among the local holders of examination degrees.

Teachers for the imperial family were from 995 on called jiaoshou, and the old term boshi was reserved for professors in the Directorate, but a regular appointment of teachers in the imperial palace began in 1073. In 1134 it was decided that in each princely household two teachers had to be employed in the "palace school" (gongxue 宮學). This system continued to be used until the end of the imperial period in 1911, but the term was from the Ming period 明 (1368-1644) on reserved for teachers in local schools, and not any more use for instructors of the princes in the palace. The creation of more public schools in the last decade of the Qing period 清 (1644-1911) substantially raised the need for teachers. From 1912 on the term jiaoshou was first used for high schools (gaodeng xuexiao 高等學校), but was soon exclusively used for instructors in the first universities (daxue 大學), and has therefore to be translated as "professor" in modern times.

Sources:
Luo Bo 羅波 (1988). "Jiaoshou 教授", in Zhao Jihui 趙吉惠, Guo Hou'an 郭厚安, ed. Zhongguo ruxue cidian 中國儒學辭典 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 800.
Niu Mengqi 牛夢琪 (1998). "Jiaoshou 教授", in Tang Jiahong 唐嘉弘, ed. Zhongguo gudai dianzhang zhidu da cidian 中國古代典章制度大辭典 (Zhengzhou: Zhongzhou guji chubanshe), 386.
Shi Xuanyuan 施宣圓 et al., ed. (1987). Zhongguo wenhua cidian 中國文化辭典 (Shanghai: Shanghai shehui kexue yuan chubanshe), 483.
Wang Linghao 王凌皓 (1996). "Boshi 博士", in Feng Kezheng 馮克正, Fu Qingsheng 傅慶升, ed. Zhuzi baijia da cidian 諸子百家大辭典 (Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe), 939.