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caoyun zongdu 漕運總督, Director-general of Grain Transport

Dec 21, 2015 © Ulrich Theobald

The Director-general of Grain Transport (caoyun zongdu 漕運總督) was an official in charge of the transport (see grain transport, caoyun 漕運) of tribute grain (caoliang 漕糧) from the lower Yangtze region to Beijing along the Grand Canal. In the early years of the Ming period 明 (1368-1644) the traditional office of (du caoyun si caoyun shi 都漕運司漕運史) was revived, but from 1451 on the office was called zongdu caoyun 總督漕運 or caoyun zongdu, and the person appointed was concurrently supervisor of military garrisons, transport canals, and allowed to inspect local offices.

The Qing dynasty 清 (1644-1911) fixed the official rank of the Director-general as 2A which rose this position to the same level as that of governors-general (zongdu 總督). In case the holder of the office was concurrently a minister (shangshu 尚書), he was given the rank 1B. The zongdu was responsible for the grain transport in the provinces Shandong, Henan, Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Hubei and Hunan, and resided in Qinghe 清河, Hebei. His staff consisted of canal-transport inspecting censors (xunshi caowu 巡視漕務), tax circuit intendants (duliangdao 督糧道), vice prefect and subprefectural magistrates commissioned as managers of tax transport (guanliang tongzhi 管糧同知, guanliang tongpan 管糧通判), or as supercargoes (yayun tongzhi 押運同知, yayun tongpan 押運通判), and a considerably number of troops under a vice general of the transport command (caobiao fujiang 漕標副將). In the nineteenth century the change of the course of the Yellow River forced the grain transport to be change from river/canal transport (heyun 河運) to sea transport (haiyun 海運), which required a wholly different management system. In 1905 the office was abolished.

Sources:
He Xuzhi 賀旭志, ed. (1991). Zhongguo lidai zhiguan cidian 中國歷代職官辭典 (Changchun: Jilin wenshi chubanshe, 1991), 24.
Liu Youzhou 劉有洲 (1998). "Caoyun zongdu 漕運總督", in Tang Jiahong 唐嘉弘, ed. Zhongguo gudai dianzhang zidu da cidian 中國古代典章制度大辭典 (Zhengzhou: Zhongzhou guji chubanshe), 68.