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Chinese History - The Republic of China (1911-1949)
ruling people, politicians and statesmen

Beiyang Government (Beijing)
1912-1928


Central (Provisional) Military Government of the Republic of China (Beiyang [linshi] zhongyang zhengfu 北洋[臨時]中央政府) 1912-1928
Capital: Beijing 北京 (from 1928 called Beiping 北平)
Presidents (da zongtong 大總統)
Prime Ministers (guowu zongli 國務總理)
Li Yuanhong 黎元洪
Military governor (dudu 都督) of Hubei
Oct 10-Dez 31,1911
Sun Yat-sen 孫逸仙 (Sun Yixian, Sun Zhongshan 孫中山, Sun Wen 孫文)
Provisional President (linshi da zongtong 臨時大總統) in Nanjing 南京/Jiangsu. Later called Guofu 國父 "Father of the Nation"
Jan 1-Apr 1,1912
Yuan Shikai 袁世凱 †
Provisional President (linshi da zongtong), from Oct 10,1913 President (da zongtong).
Apr 2,1912 provisional parliament (linshi canyiyuan 臨時參議院) moves to Beijing.
Emperor Jan 1-Apr 24,1916, reign motto: Hongxian 洪憲 (Usurpatorious Hongxian Government [Wei Hongxian zhengfu 偽洪憲政府], Prime Ministers are called "Secretaries of State" [guowuqing 國務卿], the parliament is called "Hall of Governmental Affairs" [zhengshitang 政事堂]).
Returned to presidentship Apr 24,1916
Mar 10,1912-Jun 6,1916 Tang Shaoyi 唐紹儀
Jun 17-29,1912 represented by Lu Zhengxiang 陸徵祥
Mar 13-Jun 27,1912
Lu Zhengxiang 陸徵祥
Aug 20-Sep 22 represented by Zhao Bingjun 趙秉鈞
Jun 29-Sep 22,1912
Zhao Bingjun 趙秉鈞
May 1-Jul 17,1913 represented by Duan Qirui 段祺瑞; Jul 17-18 represented by Zhu Qiqian 朱啟鈐
Sep 25,1912-Jul 16,1913
Duan Qirui 段祺瑞 (representing) Jul 19-31,1913
Xiong Xiling 熊希齡 Jul 31,1913-Feb 12,1914
Sun Baoqi 孫寶琦 (representing) Feb 12-May 1,1914
Xu Shichang 徐世昌
Secretary of state (guowuqing 國務卿). Oct 27-Dec 21,1915 represented by Lu Zhengxiang
May 1,1914-Dec 21,1915
Lu Zhengxiang (2nd time)
Secretary of state
Dec 21,1915-Mar 21,1916
Xu Shichang (2nd time)
Secretary of state
Mar 21-Apr 22,1916
Duan Qirui (2nd time)
Secretary of state Apr 22-Jun 29,1916; then prime minister
Apr 22,1916-May 23,1917
Li Yuanhong (2nd time)
Usurpation of Imperial Restaurators (Fubi wei zhengfu 復辟偽政府), Jul 1-12,1917; Emperor: Aisin Giorro Puyi 愛新覺羅溥儀, Imperial Throne Council (Neige yizheng 內閣議政) members: Zhang Xun 張勳, Chen Baochen 陳寶琛, Liu Tingchen 劉廷琛, Zhang Zhenfang 張鎮芳, Wang Shizhen 王士珍, Liang Dunyan 梁敦彥, Yuan Dahua 袁大化
Jun 7,1916-Jul 14,1917
Wu Tingfang 伍廷芳 (representing) May 23-28,1917
Li Jingxi 李經羲
May 28-Jun 12,1917 represented by Wu Tingfang; Jun 12-24 represented by Jiang Chaozong 江朝宗
May 28-Jul 2,1917
Feng Guozhang 馮國璋 Jul 6,1917-Oct 10,1918 Duan Qirui (3rd time) Jul 2-Nov 22,1917
Wang Daxie 汪大燮 (representing) Nov 22-30,1917
Wang Shizhen 王士珍 (acting Nov 20-Dec 1,1917) Nov 30,1917-Feb 20,1918
Qian Nengxun 錢能訓 (representing) Feb20-Mar 23,1918
Duan Qirui (4th time) Mar 23-Oct 10,1918
Xu Shichang 徐世昌 Oct 10,1918-Jun 2,1922 Qian Nengxun (2nd time; representing Oct 10-Dec 12,1918) Oct 10,1918-Jun 13,1919
Gong Xinzhan 龔心湛 (representing) Jun 13-Sep 24,1919
Jin Yunpeng 靳雲鵬 (representing Sep 24-Nov 5,1919) Sep 24,1919-May 14,1920
Sa Zhenbing 薩鎮冰 (representing) May 14-Aug 8,1920
Jin Yunpeng (2nd time; acting Aug 9,1920-May 10,1920) Aug 9,1920-Dec 18,1921
Yan Huiqing 顏惠慶 (representing) Dec 18-24,1921
Liang Shiyi 梁士詒 Dec 24,1921-Jan 25,1922
Yan Huiqing (2nd time; representing) Jan 25-Apr 9,1922
Zhou Ziqi 周自齊 (acting) Apr 9-Jun 12,1922
Li Yuanhong (3rd time) Jun 11,1922-Jun 13,1923 Yan Huiqing (3rd time; acting)
Jul 31-Aug 5,1922 represented by Wang Chonghui 王寵惠
Jun 11-Aug 5,1922
Tang Shaoyi (2nd time; no accession)
Represented by Wang Chonghui 王寵惠
Aug 5-Sep 19,1922
Wang Chonghui 王寵惠 (acting) Sep 19-Nov 29,1922
Wang Daxie (2nd time; acting) Nov 29-Dec 11,1922
Wang Zhengting 王正廷 (representing) Dec 11,1922-Jan 4,1923
Zhang Shaozeng 張紹曾 Jan 4-Jun 6,1923
Gao Lingwei 高凌霨 (acting) Jun 14-Oct 10,1923 Li Genyuan 李根源 (representing) Jun 13-14,1923
Gao Lingwei 高凌霨 (representing) Jun 14,1923-Jan 12,1924
Cao Kun 曹錕 Oct 10,1923-Nov 3,1924
Sun Baoqi (2nd time) Jan 12-Jul 2,1924
Gu Weijun 顧維鈞 (representing) Jul 2-Sep 14,1924
Yan Huiqing (4th time) Sep 14-Oct 31,1924
Huang Fu 黃郛 (acting) Nov 2-23,1924 Huang Fu 黃郛 (representing) Oct 31-Nov 25,1924
Duan Qirui 段祺瑞
Provisional president
Nov 24,1924-Apr 20,1926 (vacancy) Nov 25,1924-Dec 25,1925
Xu Shiying 許世英
Feb 15-Apr 20,1926 represented by Jia Deyao 賈德耀
Dec 26,1925-Mar 4,1926
Hu Weide 胡惟德 (acting) Apr 20-May 13,1926
Yan Huiqing 顏惠慶 (acting) May 13-Jun 22,1926 Yan Huiqing (5th time) May 13-Jun 22,1926
Du Xigui 杜錫珪 (acting) Jun 22-Oct 1,1926 Du Xigui 杜錫珪 (representing) Jun 22-Oct 1,1926
Gu Weijun (Wellington Koo) 顧維鈞 (acting) Oct 1,1926-Jun 17,1927 Gu Weijun (2nd time; representing) Oct 5,1926-Jun 17,1927
Hu Weide (2nd time; representing) Jun 17-20,1927
Zhang Zuolin 張作霖 †
Great Marshal of Military Government (Jun zhengfu da yuanshuai 軍政府大元帥)
Killed by bomb
Jun 18,1927-Jun 4,1928 Pan Fu 潘復 (escape) Jun 20,1927-Jun 3,1928


Nationalist Government of Guangzhou (Guangzhou guomin zhengfu 廣州國民政府) 1917-1928
Capital: Guangzhou 廣州/Guandong
Presidents (Chairmen of National Government [Guomin zhengfu zhuxi 國民政府主席])
Sun Yat-sen 孫逸仙 (Sun Yixian, Sun Zhongshan 孫中山, Sun Wen 孫文)
Generalissimo of the Military Government Protecting the Constitution (Hufa junzhengfu da yuanshuai 護法軍政府大元帥)
Sep 1,1917-May 4, 1918
Cen Chunxuan 岑春煊 (chairman from Jul 18,1918), Sun Yat-sen, Tang Shaoyi 唐紹儀, Wu Tingfang 伍廷芳, Lu Rongting 陸榮廷, Tang Jiyao 唐繼堯, Lin Baoyi 林保懌
Presidential [Committee] of the Military Government Protecting the Constitution (Hufa junzhengfu zongcai 護法軍政府總裁)
May 4,1920 Guangxi Clique appointing Xiong Kewu 熊克武, Wen Zongyao 溫宗堯 and Liu Xianshi 劉顯世 as chairmen
May 20,1918-Jun 3,1920
Sun Yat-sen, Tang Shaoyi, Wu Tingfang, Tang Jiyao
Governing Committee of the Military Government
Oct 1920-May 1921
Sun Yat-sen
Extraordinary President (feichang dazongtong 非常大總統)
Leaves Guangzhou Jul 9,1922
May 5,1921-Jun 16,1922
(vacancy) Jun 1922-Mar 1923
Sun Yat-sen †
Generalissimo of the National Government
Mar 1923-Mar 12,1925
Hu Hanmin 胡漢民(representing)
Generalissimo of the National Government
Mar 12-Jul 1,1925
Wang Jingwei 汪精衛
Chairman of the National Government
Jul 26,1925 constitution of the National Revolutionary Army (Guomin gemingjun 國民革命軍)
Jul 1,1925-Mar 22,1926
Tan Yankai (Mar 22-Jul 6,1926 representing)
Chairman of the National Government, from Dec 13,1926 in Wuhan 武漢/Hubei
Mar 22,1926-Apr 10,1927
Wang Jingwei
In Wuhan 武漢. Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Government (Guomin zhengfu changwu weiyuan zhuxi 國民政府常務委員主席).
Apr 18,1927 Jiang Jieshi 蔣介石 (Great-commander of the National Revolutionary Army [Guomin gemingjun zongsiling 國民革命軍總司令]) founds Nationalist Government in Nanjing 南京/Jiangsu, chairman: Hu Hanmin (Apr 18-Aug 14,1927)
Aug 22,1927 Lushan Conference 廬山談判: Reunion of the two governments Sep 16, Nanjing becomes capital
Apr 10-Sep 13,1927
Tan Yankai (Sep 16,1927-Feb 7,1928 representing)
Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Government
Sep 16,1927-Oct 8,1928


Nationalist Government of Nanjing (Nanjing guomin zhengfu 南京國民政府) 1928-1949
Capital: Nanjing 南京/Jiangsu, from 1938-1946 Chongqing 重慶/Sichuan
Presidents (Chairmen of National Government [Guomin zhengfu zhuxi 國民政府主席])
Prime ministers (Presidents of the Executive Yuan [Xingzhengyuan yuanzhang 行政院院長])
Jiang Jieshi 蔣介石 (Chiang Kai-shek)
Chairman of the National Government
Oct 10,1928-Dec 15,1931 Tan Yankai 譚延闓 † Oct 8,1928-Sep 22,1930
Song Ziwen (T.V. Soong) 宋子文 (representing) Sep 25-Nov 22,1930
Jiang Jieshi 蔣介石 Nov 22,1930-Dec 15,1931
Chen Mingshu 陳銘樞 (representing) Dec 15-31,1931
Lin Sen 林森
Chairman of the National Government. Representing Dec 15-31, 1931
Dec 15,1931-Aug 1,1943 Sun Ke 孫科 Dec 29,1931-Jan 28,1932
Wang Jingwei 汪精衛 (Wang Zhaoming 汪兆銘)
Aug 25,1932-Mar 29,1933 represented by Song Ziwen; from Jul 3-Aug 23 and Nov 8-Dec 7,1935 represented by Kong Xiangxi 孔祥熙
Jan 29,1932-Dec 19,1935
Jiang Jieshi (2nd time)
Dec 12,1936-Apr 2,1937 represented by Kong Xiangxi; Apr 4-May 29 represented by Wang Chonghui 王寵惠
Dec 16,1935-Jan 1,1938
Kong Xiangxi (H.H. Kung) 孔祥熙 Jan 4,1938-Nov 25,1939
Jiang Jieshi (3rd time)
Dec 4,1944-May 31,1945 represented by Song Ziwen
Dec 11,1939-May 31,1944
Jiang Jieshi (2nd time)
Acting Aug-Oct 1943, from May 1948 President
Oct 10,1943-Jan 21,1949
Song Ziwen (2nd time) May 31,1945-Mar 1,1947
Jiang Jieshi (4th time) Mar 1-Apr 17,1947
Zhang Qun 張群 Apr 23,1947-May 25,1948
Weng Wenhao 翁文灝 Jun 1-Nov 26,1948
Sun Ke (2nd time) Nov 26,1948-Mar 12,1949
Li Zongren 李宗仁
From Dec 1949 on Taiwan 臺灣.
Jan 22,1949-Sep 30,1949
He Yingqin 何應欽 Mar 12-May 30,1949
Yan Xishan 閻錫山
From Dec 1949 on Taiwan.
Jun 6,1949-Mar 1950


Usurpatorious Empire of Manzhou (Wei Manzhou zhi zhengfu 偽滿洲執政府, Manzhouguo 滿洲國) 1932-1945
Capital: Shenyang 瀋陽 (Mukden)
Emperor: Aisin Gioro Puyi 愛新覺羅溥儀 (Emperor from Mar 1,1934), reign periods:
-----Datong 大同 1932-1933
-----Kangde 康德 1934-1945
Mar 1932-1945
Presidents of the Secretariate (Mishuchu zhang 秘書處長, from Mar 1934 Shangshufu dachen 尚書府大臣)
Presidents of the State Council (Guowuyuan zongli 國務院總理, from May 1935 Guowu zongli dachen 國務總理大臣)
Hu Siyuan 胡嗣瑗 Mar 1932-Feb 1934 Zheng Xiaoxu 鄭孝胥 Mar 10,1932-May 20,1935
Guo Zongxi 郭宗熙 † Mar 1934-Feb 1935
Yuan Jinkai 袁金鎧 Feb 1935-Apr 1944 Zhang Jinghui 張景惠 May 1935-1945
Ji Xing 吉興 Apr 1944-1945
Usurpatorious Provisional Government in Beiping (Wei Zhonghua minguo linshi zhengfu 偽中華民國臨時政府) 1937-1940
Capital: Beiping 北平 (modern Bejing)
Standing Committee of the Central Government (Zhongyang changwu weiyuanhui 中央常務委員會)
Prime ministers (Presidents of the Executive Commission [Xingzheng weiyuanhui zhang 行政委員會長])
Wang Kemin 王克敏, Wang Yitang 王揖唐, Dong Kang 董康, Qi Xieyuan 齊燮元, Zhu Shen 朱深 Dec 14,1937-Mar 20,1940 Wang Kemin 王克敏 Jan 1938-Mar 20,1940
Usurpatorious Reform Government in Nanjing (Wei Zhonghua minguo weixin zhengfu 偽中華民國維新政府) 1938-1940
Capital: Nanjing 南京/Jiangsu
Prime minister (President of the Executive Yuan [Xingzhengyuan yuanzhang 行政院院長])
Liang Hongzhi 粱鴻志 (acting Mar 28-Jul 29,1938) Mar 28, 1938-Mar 30,1940
Usurpatorious Nationalist Government of Wang Jingwei (Wang wei guomin zhengfu 汪偽國民政府) 1940-1945
Capital: Nanjing
Chairman of the National Government (Guomin zhengfu zhuxi 國民政府主席)
Prime minister (President of the Executive Yuan [Xingzhengyuan yuanzhang 行政院院長])
Wang Jingwei 汪精衛 (Wang Zhaoming 汪兆銘) † Mar 30,1940-Nov 10,1944 Wang Jingwei 汪精衛 (Wang Zhaoming 汪兆銘) † Mar 30,1940-Nov 10,1944
Chen Gongbo 陳公博 (representing Mar 22-Nov 15,1944) Mar 22,1944-1945 Chen Gongbo 陳公博 Nov 12,1944-1945

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-- Provincial governors

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Portraits of political leaders of the Republic
Sun Yatsen (Sun Zhongshan)
Sun Yat-sen
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek

Yuan Shikai

Tan Sitong
Duan Qirui
Duan Qirui
Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan
Feng Yuxiang
Feng Yuxiang
Zhang Zuolin
Zhang Zuolin
Wu Peifu
Wu Peifu
Zhang Xueliang
Zhang Xueliang
Henry Puyi, Emperor of Manchukuo
Henry Puyi

Wang Jingwei

  © 2000 ff · Ulrich Theobald · Mail