The country of Jibin 罽賓 (Kashmir) was a small state located in the southeastern part of modern Afghanistan, the northern part of Pakistan and the western parts of the union state of Kashmir. It was known as a militarily very strong polity that controlled the valley of River Kabul and the upper course of the Indus River. The main cities of Jibin were located in the place of modern Kabul and Ghazni. The transliteration Jibin is used in the Hanshu 漢書, while the Xintangshu 新唐書 calls this state Geshimi 箇失蜜 or Jiashimiluo 迦濕彌邏 (i.e. Kashmir). The Secret History of the Mongols 蒙古秘史 calls it Keshimi'r 客失迷兒, the biographical collection Xu gaoseng zhuan 續高僧傳 names it Jiabeishi 迦臂施.
For travellers crossing the Hindukush Range from Central Asia or China to India, the country of Jibin was not easy to pass and a dangerous place to cross.