The Four Categories of Literature
The Confucian Classics is a canon of important writings of the teachings of the philosopher Confucius (Kongzi 孔子). Authorship was partially attribtued to Confucius himself, especially the so-called Five Classics (wujing 五經). In fact, only a small part of the whole canon dates from the time in which Confucius lived, which was called the late Spring and Autumn period 春秋 (770-5th cent. BCE). Parts of the "Book of Documents", the "Book of Songs", the "Book of Changes" and the "Spring and Autumn Annals" existed already before the time of Confucius. But the main part of the corpus was written or at least compiled during the Han period 漢 (206 BCE-220 CE), when Confucianism became the official state philosophy and thinking.
The books of the canon are divided in the Wujing 五經 "Five Canonical Works", including the Yijing 易經 "Book of Changes", the Shangshu 尚書 (also known as Shujing 書經) "Book of Documents", the Shijing 詩經 (or Maoshi 毛詩) "Book of Poetry" , the Liji 禮記 "Records of Rites" and the Chunqiu 春秋 "Spring and Autumn Annals" (the Chunqiu is in most cases combined with the so-called "Commentary" by Zuo Qiuming 左丘明, the Zuozhuan 左傳), and the Sishu 四書 "Four Books", including the teachings of the four philosophers Kongzi 孔子 (the Lunyu 論語 "Confucian Analects"), his disciple Zeng Shen 曾參 (the Daxue 大學 "Great Learning"), Kong Ji 孔伋, a grandson of Confucius (the Zhongyong 中庸 "Doctrine of the Mean"), and the book Mengzi 孟子 that includes the teachings of the philosopher Meng Ke 孟軻.
The Six Classics
Traditional texts speak of the "Six Classics" (liujing 六經 or liuyi 六藝) that consist of the Five Classics listead above and a classical book about music that has vanished. This book about music might now be part of the Liji as the chapter Yueji 樂記 "Records of Music". If it ever existed as a separated classic is not sure. Other interpretations say that the term Liujing has to be understood as the "Six Arts" (like the middle-age artes liberales): the Shangshu representing royal speeches, the Chunqiu representing historiography, the Shijing representing poetry, the Yijing divining, the Liji (or Yili) representing rituals, and finally the Yueji as the ars musica.
The Nine Classics
Later scholars count nine Canonical Works (jiujing 九經) that add four books to the Five Classics, namely some other writings on rites and etiquette, the Zhouli 周禮 "Rites of the Zhou" and the Yili 儀禮 "Etiquette and Rites", as well as two early Han period commentaries to the "Spring and Autumn Annals", the Gongyangzhuan 公羊傳 commentary by Gongyang Gao 公羊高, and the Guliangzhuan 穀梁傳 commentary by Guliang Xi 穀梁喜.
The Thirteen Classics
During the reign of Emperor Taizong 唐太宗 (r. 626-649) of the Tang period 唐 (618-907), the "smaller classics" were added and thus formed the corpus of the Thirteen Confucian Classics (shisanjing 十三經). The smaller classics are the Xiaojing 孝經 "Book on Filial Piety", the Lunyu, the Mengzi, the "Doctrine of the Mean", the "Great Learning", and the semantical dictionary Erya 爾雅. Not counting the "Doctrine of the Mean" and the "Great Learning", because they are both part of the Liji, the canon of thirteen classics is full.
The first scholar screen, collect and compile the classical books were the Han period scholars Liu Xiang 劉向 and his son Liu Xin 劉歆. Xin composed a catalogue of existing writings of the six literary categories, the Liuyilüe 六藝略. This catalogue lists many different versions of one single classic and thus shows how complicate it was to find out the orthodox version of a text and to what quarrels it eventually led. The books that were written on bamboo slips have been partially destroyed by war and other catastrophs. Until the end of the Han period, the orthodox version had won through and was cut into slabs of stone in 175 CE (the so-called Xiping Stone Classics 熹平石經) under Emperor Ling 漢靈帝 (r. 167-188). A second cutting was undertaken during the Three Kingdoms period 三國 (220-280) on order of the child emperor Cao Fang 曹芳 (r. 239-254) in 245 AD (the Zhengshi Stone Classics 正始石經). On the Zhengshi stone slabs, the text of the classics was incised in three different forms of characters. The third stone cutting (Kaicheng Stone Classics 開成石經) was made in 836 CE under the supervision of Emperor Wenzong 唐文宗 (r. 826-840).
The Confucian Classics had a position among Chinese literature like the bible has in the West. Scholars attempting to graduate in the state examinations had to learn, to explain and to exegete the most important of these books. For the Confucian society, these classical writings contained the basic knowledge for the state system as well as for the conduct at home.
The following table gives an overview of the Classics and some writings that belong to the same field of interest like the classics but are not included in the canon (here called sub-classics):
The new text and old text schools
The difference between the so-called old texts and the new texts of the Confucian Classics developed at the end of the Former Han period 前漢 (206 BCE-8 CE). Until that date there was only one tradition which operated with a text corpus of Confucian Classics which was transmitted first more or less orally and then written down in the second century BCE in the then usual chancery script (lishu 隸書). Only with the discovery of older texts written in the seal script (zhuanshu 篆書) during the first century BCE Confucian scholars began making a difference between the new texts used until that date (jinwen 今文) and the old texts (guwen 古文) newly discovered.
In the mid-Former Han period when Confucianism was made state doctrine and the government set up professorships (boshi 博士 "erudites") for each of the classics, the following versions and traditions were known:
The Shijing 詩經 "Book of Songs" was available in three different versions:
For the Qi and Han versions professors were already appointed during the reign of Emperor Wen 漢文帝 (r. 180-157 BCE), a professor for the Qi version only during the reign of Emperor Jing 漢景帝 (r. 157-141 BCE).
- the Lu 魯 version transmitted by Shen Gong 申公 (Shen Pei 申培)
- the Qi 齊 version transmitted by Master Yuan Gu 轅固生
- and the Han 韓 version transmitted by Han Ying 韓嬰.
The Shangshu 尚書 "Book of Documents" existed in the following versions:
All three versions were transmitted by Fu Sheng 伏勝. A professorship for the Ouyang version was founded under the reign of Emperor Wu 漢武帝 (r. 141-87 BCE), such for the two versions of Xiahou father and son during the reign of Emperor Xuan 漢宣帝 (r. 74-49 BCE).
Of the ritual classics there were likewise three versions transmitted:
All versions were handed down by Gao Tangsheng 高堂生. Emperor Wu set up a professorship for the ritual classic, and the discipline was divided into the field of Dai Sen. and that of the Dai Jun. rituals. If a professorship for the Qing Pu version was set up is not known.
The Yijing 易經 "Book of Changes" was transmitted in four different versions, all four handed down by Tian He 田何:
Emperor Wu set up a general professorship for the Yijing, Emperor Xuan had them divided into three, and the Jing Fang version was only given a professorship during the reign of Emperor Yuan 漢元帝 (r. 49-33 BCE), but this is not sure.
The Gongyangzhuan 公羊傳 commentary to the Chunqiu 春秋 "Spring and Autumn Annals" was transmitted by Yan Pengzu 嚴彭祖 and Yan Anle 顔安樂. They had been handed down by Master Humu 胡毋生 and Dong Zhongshu 董仲舒. Emperor Wu set up one professorship, Emperor Xuan one for both versions each. The Guliangzhuan 穀梁傳 commentary had been transmitted by Master Jiang from Xiaqiu 瑕丘江公, and it is not known if there was a professorship for it. It might also have been that the Guliangzhuan was an old text classic.
The scholarly approach of the new text school was to use the classics with a practical purpose in government and social behaviour. It was deeply influenced by correlative thinking which saw Yin and Yang 陰陽 and the Five Processes (wuxing 五行) acting in nature, society and government. Minuscule events and statements were therefore interpreted as of enormous meaning and influence. Everything was seen as interconnected and centered on the ruler. Terms and names were seen as crucial points in the whole universal system. It was especially the teachings of Dong Zhongshu that were held in high esteem. His book Chunqiu fanlu 春秋繁露 "Rich dew of Spring and Autumn" is therefore treated as a semi-classic.
The new text philosophers saw Confucius as a politician who compiled or at least processed the texts of the Five Classics (wujing 五經) with the intention to use paradigms from history to enlighten the rulers and their ministers of the present. It was especially the Chunqiu Annals and the commentaries Gongyangzhuan and Guliangzhuan of which each single word and sentence was interpreted as a political critique (baobian 褒貶 "praise and blame") of historical events. The mentioning of the personal name of a feudal ruler, for instance, was an expression of his virtue, and the omission of a feudal title was seen as a criticism. The interpreters of the new text school saw a great meaning in each single word. When the power of the central government and that of the emperor declined in the later part of the Former Han dynasty the new text interpretations lost their attraction and the apocryphal interpretations (chenwei 讖緯) were en mode.
It was only during the 18th century that Confucian scholars again were interested in the study of the new text interpretations of the Confucian Classics. The most important new text researchers of the late Qing period 清 (1644-1911) is the so-called Changzhou Study Group 常州學派 under Zhuang Cunyu 莊存與, Zhuang Shuzu 莊述祖, Liu Banglu 劉逢禄 and Song Xiangfeng 宋翔鳳, as well as Wei Yuan 魏源, Gong Zizhen 龔自珍, Liao Ping 廖平, Pi Xirui 皮錫瑞 and Kang Youwei 康有為.
In the first third of the Former Han period more and more versions of Confucian classics were dug out from different sources: From hidings in the walls of the manour of the family Kong (Kongbi 孔壁) that was destroyed when Liu Yu 劉餘, Prince Gong of Lu 魯恭王, enlarged his palace, from secret libraries, or from among the populace that submitted texts to Liu De 劉德, Prince Xian of Hejian 河間獻王. Those were the old texts with the following versions:
The Yijing by Fei Zhi 費直, the old-text "Documents" (Guwen Shangshu 古文尚書), the "Songs" by Mao (Maoshi 毛詩), the so-called "lost rites" (Yili 逸禮) and the "Rites of the Zhou" (Zhouli), and the Zuozhuan 左傳 as a parallel version of the Chunqiu annals. While the new texts were more oriented to the present, the old texts were focused on a more interpretive or even philological approach, without the large theoretical framework that tried to bind together the new texts. For this reason the old text school produced a lot of philological work, like the Erya 爾雅 thesaurus and the character dictionary Shuowen jiezi 說文解字.
The old text interpretors saw the Duke of Zhou 周公 as the first Saint (xiansheng 先聖), Confucius as the foremost teacher (xianshi 先師), according to his own words that he only transmitted and did not compile new books (shu er bu zuo 述而不作). The Confucian Classics were seen as historiographical material and not as an advice for the reform of society or government. Old text interpreters also refrained from seeking a deeper meaning behind each single word, as the new text interpreters did. Likewise, old text philosophers did not see a direct correlation between human and especially the ruler's behaviour and a Celestial response in the shape of omina and portents.
During the reign of Emperor Ai 漢哀帝 (r. 7 -1 BCE) the scholar Liu Xin 劉歆 suggested setting up professorships for the old texts and thus initiated the competitive atmosphere of the Confucian texts. Liu's argument against the prevailing new text tradition was that their base was not complete, wrong or defective, and advocated the use of the purportedly more reliable old texts. The academic dispute between the two school should last for the next two hundred years. During the usurpation of Wang Mang 王莽 (r. 8-22 CE), who preferred the old texts, professorships for the old texts were finally set up, including one for the lost (?) classic of music (Yuejing 樂經). When he was overthrown and the Han dynasty refounded Emperor Guangwu 漢光武帝 (r. 25-57 CE) reestablished the fourteen professorships of the new text school. But he also had - at least for a certain time - established a chair for the old text Zuozhuan. This was also done by Emperor Zhang 漢章帝 (r. 75-88) who established chairs for the Gongyangzhuan and Guliangzhuan, the Zuozhuan, Guwen Shangshu and the Maoshi. Famous old text scholars were Yang Xiong 揚雄, and also Huan Tan 桓譚 and Wang Chong 王充 who initiated a philosophy of realism that did away with the theories of correlation and apocryphal interpretations of the Classics. Under the scholar Jia Kui 賈逵 the old text school won more and more ground and produced famous teachers as Fu Qian 服虔, Ma Rong 馬融 and Zheng Xuan 鄭玄. These were able to gradually merge the interpretations and focal points of the two schools with the result that at the end of the Later Han period the antagonisms of the two schools had disappeared. Scholars of that time, like Zhou Fang 周防 or Lu Zhi 盧植, are not any more clearly classifiable as belonging to one school or the other.
During the late 18th and early 19th century the philological interpretation (kaozhengxue 考證學) of the Confucian Classics according to the old text school was revived by the so-called Qian-Jia school 乾嘉學派. Their discipline of studies of the Han period old text writings is also called Hanxue 漢學. The most important scholars of the old text traditions are Zhang Taiyan 章太炎 and Liu Shipei 劉師培.
Pang Pu 龐樸 (ed. 1997). Zhongguo ruxue 中國儒學, vol. 4, pp. 14-17. Shanghai: Dongfang chuban zhongxin.
Wang Xuhua 王煦華 (1992). "Jing jin-gu wenxue 經今古文學", in: Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史, vol. 1, pp. 489-90. Beijing/Shanghai.
The stone classics (shijing 石經)
"Stone Classics" are texts of the Confucian Classics that were incised into stone tablets. Through history there were several enterprises that envisaged to provide a correct and authoritative text of the Classics that was at the same time written in an exemplarious calligraphic style. The first time that Classic texts were incised into stone was during the reign of Emperor Ping 漢平帝 (r. 1 BCE-5 CE) of the late Former Han period 前漢 (206 BCE-8 CE). The regent and later usurper Wang Mang 王莽 (r. 8-22 CE) ordered Zhen Feng 甄豐 to "fossilize" the texts of the books Yijing 易經, Shangshu 尚書, Shijing 詩經 and Zuozhuan 左傳 in imitation of an old-text version. The second occasion was under Emperor Ling 漢靈帝 (r. 167-189) at the end of the Later Han period 後漢 (25-220 CE). In 175 CE the books Yijing 易經, Shangshu 尚書, Shijing 詩經, Yili 儀禮, Gongyangzhuan 公羊傳 and Lunyu 論語 were incised into 46 stone slabs. The stelae were erected on the compound in front of the gate to the National University (taixue 太學) in the capital Luoyang 洛陽 (modern Luoyang, Henan). These were the Xiping Stone Classics 熹平石經, called so because they were erected during the Xiping reign 熹平 (172-177). The text had been calligraphed by Cai Yong 蔡邕. While some pieces of the Xiping Stone Classics have survived that were unearthed in 1922, no fragment or rubbing of the first Stone Classics have survived.
During the Zhengshi reign 正始 (240-248) of the Wei period 曹魏 (220-265) it was again ordered to bring the texts of the Confucian Classics into stone, the so-called Zhengshi Stone Classics 正始石經. The text of the Zhengshi Stone Classics from 241 was written in three typefaces, namely ancient script (guwen 古文), seal script (zhuanwen 篆書) and chancery script (lishu 隸書), and are therefore also called the "Three-Type Stone Classics" (Santi shijing 三體石經).
The Kaicheng Stone Classics 開成石經, created between 833 and 837, were produced during the reign period Kaicheng 開成 (836-840) of Emperor Wenzong 唐文宗 (r. 826-840) of the Tang dynasty 唐 (618-907) and included all of the Classics, except the book Mengzi 孟子.
Meng Chang 孟昶 (r. 934-965), ruler of the state of Shu 蜀 during the Five Dynasties period 五代 (907-960), had written the Stone Classics from Shu 蜀石經 from 944 that included eleven texts, and not the Xiaojing 孝經, Erya 爾雅 and Mengzi. It was the first time that commentaries were also included into the incised text, written in half-size characters that were written in double columns under the commented text. The Shu Classics were erected in the capital of Shu, Chengdu 成都, but served as authoritative version for a large part of the Southern Song period. In 1938 fragments of these stelae were discovered.
The whole corpus of the Thirteen Classics was for the first time cast into stone by Emperor Taizong 宋太宗 (r. 976-997) of the Song dynasty 宋 (960-1279) in 1061, in the capital Kaifeng 開封 (modern Kaifeng, Henan), and in seal and chancery type. The same did Emperor Gaozong 宋高宗 (r. 1127-1162), the first ruler of the Southern Song 南宋 (1127-1279), who had the stelae set up in the new National University in the capital Lin'an 臨安 (modern Hangzhou 杭州, Zhejiang). The sample text was written by the emperor himself. Of the two hundred stones, seventy are still to be seen.
The Qianlong Emperor 乾隆 (r. 1735-1796) of the Qing dynasty 清 (1644-1911) had produced stone classics in the compound of the Directorate of Education (guozijian 國子監) in Beijing, but the original text on the 190 stones was erased and overwritten during the Jiaqing reign 嘉慶 (1796-1820), because the incising had not been done very well in the original version.
Although Chang'an (modern Xi'an, Shaanxi) had ceased to be capital after the end of the Tang period, the city remained a place where regularly stone stelae were erected. In 1087 Emperor Zhezong 宋哲宗 (r. 1085-1100) of the Song was the first who created a ground for a "forest of steles" (beilin 碑林) in Chang'an, and in 1090 the ancient Kaicheng Stone Classics were moved to this place, where they survived in total. The stelae of the Xi'an forest of steles were inscribed with all Classics except the Mengzi, which was only added during the Kangxi reign 康熙 (1662-1722) of the Qing period. The Forest includes 114 stelae inscribed with 655,000 characters of the main texts and many commentaries: Wang Bi's 王弼 commentary to the Yijing, the forged Kong Anguo 孔安國 commentary to the Shangshu, Zheng Xuan's 鄭玄 commentary to the Shijing, Zhouli 周禮, Yili and Liji 禮記, Du Yu's 杜預 commentary to the Zuozhuan, He Xiu's 何休 commentary to the Gongyangzhuan, Fang Ning's 范寧 to the Guliangzhuan 穀梁傳, He Yan's 何晏 to the Lunyu, Emperor Xuanzong's 唐玄宗 (r. 712-755) commentary to the Xiaojing, Guo Pu's 郭璞 commentary to the gloss book Erya, and Zhu Xi's 朱熹 commentary to the Mengzi.
The oldest research to the Stone Classics was written by Gu Yanwu 顧炎武 (Shijing kao 石經考), followed by Wan Sitong's 萬斯同 Shijing kao 石經考. In modern times Ma Heng 馬衡 has written the Han shijing jicun 漢石經集存, a collection of remnants of Han period texts, and Zhang Guogan 張國淦 the Lidao shijing kao 歷代石經考.
Sheng Guangzhi 盛廣智 (1996). "Lidai shijing 歷代石經", in: Zhuzi baijia da cidian 諸子百家大辭典, Shenyang: Liaoning renmin chubanshe, p. 295.
Wu Rongceng 吳榮曾 (1992). "Shijing 石經", in: Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Kaoguxue 考古學, Beijing/Shanghai: Zhongguo da baike quanshu chubanshe, p. 472.
The apocryphal or prophesy classics (chenwei 讖緯)
The aprocryphal texts of the Han period 漢 (206 BCE-220 CE) are commentaries to the Confucian Classics used to establish prophesies on the base of natural and supernatural phenomena recorded in the basic texts. Such phenomena were interpreted as an expression of Heaven's will towards the ruler and the state. Many of the texts are written in a mystic language hardly to understand. These commentaries were seen as filling threads (wei 緯) to the warp threads of the Classics (jing 經). The prognostication texts (chen 讖) were older than these "sideline" writings to the Classics.
The oldest mentioning of such prophesy texts (chen 讖) is laid into the reign of Duke Mu of the state of Qin 秦穆公 (r. 659-621). During the reign of the First Emperor of Qin 秦始皇帝 (r. 246/221-210) the magician Lu Sheng 盧生 might have been the first author of a chen text, a so-called tulu 圖錄 "chart record". The most popular apocryphal texts are the famous Hetu 河圖 "River chart" and the Luoshu 洛書 "Scripture from the River Luo" which were said to have been detected on the back of a turtle emerging from the Yellow River resp. on the flanks of a fabulous Qilin beast ("unicorn") coming out of the River Luo. Both texts are actually constellations of different hexagrams interpreted by many scholars through the ages. From many titles of apocryphal classics it can be seen that charts, diagrams or symbols were involved in the interpretation of the Confucian Classics and constituted a crucial part of these books.
The oldest actual apocryphal classic texts are Fu Sheng's 伏勝 Shangshu dazhuan 尚書大傳, the "Large commentary to the Shangshu", and Dong Zhongshu's 董仲舒 Chunqiu yinyang 春秋陰陽, which is lost. From the time of Emperor Wu 漢武帝 (r. 141-87 BCE) on for virtually all Classics of the Confucian canon apocryphal texts appeared. Those are called the apocryphals to the seven classics (qijing wei 七經緯). Together with the above-mentioned Hetu and Luoshu and the apocryphals to the Lunyu there was a corpus of 81 chapters of such texts, of which that to the seven classics consisted of 36 chapters, the Hetu texts of 9, the Luoshu texts of 6 chapters, both types allegedly from the times from the Yellow Emperor 黃帝 down to King Wen 周文王 (11th cent. BCE) of the Zhou dynasty 周 (11th cent.-221 BCE), and 30 chapters of both types dating from the times of Confucius 孔子. Other apocryphal texts of this corpus were called Shangshu zhonghou 尚書中侯, Luozuiji 洛罪極, Wuxingzhuan 五行傳, Shitui duzai 詩推度災, Fanlishu 氾曆樞, Hanshenwu 含神務, Xiaojing gouming jue 孝經勾命訣, Yuanshenqi 援神契, and Zachen 雜讖. At the end of the Han period Xi Meng 郗萌 collected various prophesies basing on charts and compiled the Chunqiu zaiyi 春秋災異 in 50 chapters.
The philosophy behind those book is mainly derived from Yin-Yang thought and correlative thinking. Dong Zhongshu, for instance, thought that the style of rule was reflected in omina and portents sent down by Heaven. A good ruler was praised by the appearance of "phoenixes" and "unicorns", while a bad ruler attracted natural disasters and rebellion. In this respect the apocryphal commentaries are very important for the understanding of how people living in the Han period thought about cosmology and metaphysics. Chen texts were willingly adapted by rulers to introduce new reign eras, and the usurper Wang Mang 王莽 (r. 8-25 CE) even based the legal foundation of his government of such texts. The same did Emperor Guangwu 漢光武帝 (r. 25-57 CE) on the restauration of the Han dynasty, when he justified his rule by spreading ominous charts predicting his accession to the throne. Confucius was deified, his words became that of a god, and there were even stories of his extraordinary appearance as a deity that had been sent down by Heaven like a messiah. The use of apocryphal texts became so popular that they even overshadowed the study of the proper classics. While the study of the apocryphals was called the "inner teaching" (neixue 内學) that of the classics was called the "outer teaching" (waixue 外學). During the famous conference of Confucian professors in the White Tiger Hall 白虎觀 inner and outer teaching were even officially given the same status. Inspite of its popularity serious scholars like Huan Tan 桓譚, Yin Min 尹敏, Zheng Xing 鄭興, Zhang Heng 張衡 and, above all, Wang Chong 王充, opposed this unreflected kind of studying the apocryphal texts and criticised them as irrational and meaningless. Zhang Heng's request to prohibit such texts was declined. Apocryphals were only prohibited centuries later, in 460 CE. Their popularity and practicality nevertheless helped them surviving into the Tang period 唐 (618-907), when it was still common to justify rule with forged texts containing prophecies, as under Empress Wu Zetian 武則天 who even had forged the Buddhist Mahāmegha Sutra (Datanjing 大曇經) to justify her reign. Even the Tang standard commentaries to the classics, the Jiujing zhengyi 九經正義, quote from the apocryphals. Ouyang Xiu 歐陽修 and Wei Liaoweng 魏了翁 (Jiujing yaoyi 九經要義) therefore revised the standard commentaries to the Confucian Canon and cleared away such quotations. From then on the chenwei texts lost their high standing and were virtually forgotten, until the Ming period 明 (1368-1644) scholar Sun Jue 孫瑴 (Guweishu 古微書) and the Qing period 清 (1644-1911) scholars Yin Yuanzheng 殷元正 (Weishu 緯書) and Ma Guohan 馬國翰 started digging them out again for academic purposes. Ma Guohan assembled fragments of such texts in his collectaneum Yuhan shanfang jiyi shu 玉函山房輯佚書, Huang Shi 黃奭 (Yishukao 逸書考) did the same in his collectaneum Hanxuetang congshu 漢學堂叢書. Zhao Zaihan 趙在翰 published the collection Qiwei 七緯, and Qiao Songnian 喬松年 compiled a last collection of apocryphal texts, the Weiju 緯攟. A complete collection of surviving apocryphal texts has been published by the Japanese scholars Yasui Kōzan 安居香山 and Nakamura Shōhachi 中村璋八 called Isho shūsei / Weishu jicheng 緯書集成 (Tōkyō: Meitoku shuppansha, 1971). A second collection with the title of Weishu jicheng has been published in 1994 by the Shanghai guji press 上海古籍出版社.
Wang Xuhua 王煦華 (1992). "Jing jin-gu wenxue 經今古文學", in: Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史, vol. 1, p. 99. Beijing/Shanghai.
Zhong Zhaopeng 鍾肇鵬 (1992). Chenwei lunlüe 讖緯論略. Shenyang: Liaoning jiaoyu chubanshe. (Guoxue congshu 國學叢書.)
Zhong Zhaopeng 鍾肇鵬 (1997). "Chenwei 讖緯", in: Pang Pu 龐樸 (ed.), Zhongguo ruxue 中國儒學, vol. 4, p. 17. Shanghai: Dongfang chuban zhongxin.
July 10, 2010 © Ulrich Theobald · Mail
Chinese Literature over time